Plant Diversity Flashcards

Vascular Plants
Terms Definitions
Bryophyta
Mosses
Hint:
Hepatophyta
Liverworts
Hint:
Anthocephyta
Hornworts
Lycophyta
Club mosses; "clubs" are their sporangia Stems covered with small overlapping scale-like leaves (but not true leaves)
Psilophyta
Whisk ferns
Sphenophyta
Horsetails
Pterophyta
True ferns
Cycadophyta
Cycads
Gingkophyta
Gingko; resistant to air pollution, often planted in urban parks; characteristic fan-like leaves turn yellow and fall in autumn
Coniferophyta
Conifers
Gnetophyta
Gnetophytes; plant buried in desert soil, exposing only a woody, concave disk that produces two strap-shaped leaves
Magnoliaphyta
Flowering plants
Cooksonia, Rhynia
small marsh plants bearing terminal sporangia
Early vascular plants
no differentiation into roots, stems, leaves; homosporous however, did have waxy cuticle, stomata
Cooksonia fossils
often found in New York and Ontario in the Silurian layer (400 million years ago)
homosporous
having the spores of one kind only; club mosses
heterosporous
having more than one kind of spore; Selaginella
Megasporophyll
sporophyll producing megasporangia only
Microsporophyll
leaflike organ bearing microsporangia
Microspores
the smaller of the two kinds of spores characteristically produced by seed plants and some fern allies, developing into a male gametophyte
Megaspores
the larger of the two kinds of spores characteristically produced by seed plants and a few fern allies, developing into a female gametophyte
Archegonium
the female reproductive organ in ferns, mosses, etc.
Antheridium
male reproductive structure producing gametes, occurring in ferns, mosses, fungi, and algae
Lycopodium spores
used in flash powder for flash photography; Also used as talcum powder
the resurrection plant”
Selaginella lepidophylla; Dried brown clump + H2O = green and photosynthetic
Isoetes
nearest relative of tree lycophytes of the Carboniferous; (quillworts); e.g. high altitude species with no gas exchange (C from sediments), others with CAM photosynthesis
scouring rushes
horsetails; Sphenophyta
Equisitum arvense
stems have hollow core, surrounded by carinal canals, each associated with a strand of xylem and phloem; grows two types of stems from its perennial rhizomes: 1. "sterile"-green, branched 2. "fertile"-produces spores in strobilus on top of stem
high toxicity: neurotoxins, carcinogens
Cycads
High incidence of ALS / Lou Gehrig’s disease in the Chamorro tribe on Guam; In 2003 a connection was made between flying fox bats and the ingestion of toxins by the Chamorro
Cycads
Ginkgo leaf extracts
used to improve short-term memory and enhance concentration
Welwitschia
Gnetophyta
Ephedra
Gnetophyta; used to produce ephedrine and pseudoephedrine for treating bronchial asthma, sinusitis, the common cold, and hay fever
Pines
bear needles singly in first 1 or 2 yrs, but thereafter produce needles in bundles (1-8 depending on species); thick cuticle, sunken stomata, overall shape
Pinus longaeva
which lives 3000-5000 years – oldest living trees
Douglas-fir
flat needles, 3 forked bracts on cones, fluted bark economically important, prefers dry, burnt-over sites
Pseudotsuga menziesii
Old Growth Douglas-fir
Hint:
Grand fir
flat needles in two distinct horizontal rows
Sitka spruce
stiff, sharp 4-sided needles, scaled bark likes moist conditions, e.g. edge of Burn's Bog
Picea sitchensis
Sitka spruce
Western hemlock
short needles, small seed cones (2 cm) common, adaptable and fast-growing (highest temperate zone plant growth rate--36 tonnes/ha/yr)
Hint:
Western redcedar
scale-like leaves moist habitats, wood with natural preservatives
Western yew
flat leaves in 2 rows, berry-like cones bark harvested for Taxol, an anti-cancer drug
Sentence: however, demand was rapidly outstripping the availability of Western yew
Hint:
in mid-1990s, estimated that full treatment of 12,000 cases of ovarian cancer in a year would require 720,000 lbs of bark from 36,000 trees problem: Pacific yew (Taxus brevifolia) relatively uncommon, slow-growing tree, with a specific niche (e.g. old growth)
Arthur Barclay
USDA botanist; find anti-cancer agents
taxol
chemical substance derived from a yew tree of the Pacific Coast: used experimentally as a drug in the treatment of cancer
Sentence: taxol prevents the mitotic spindle from being broken down by stabilizing the microtubule bundles; the rapid cell division characteristic of tumor cells is impeded; also shows promise for other cancers such as breast cancer…could create a 10-fold increase in demand or higher
Angiosperms
flowering plants; great variety of forms, with common characteristics: flowers, fruits, life-cycle
Sentence: by far the largest division/phylum of photosynthetic organisms (235,000 species and counting)
Two major classes of angiosperms
Monocotyledones (65,000 spp.) Eudicotyledones (170,000 spp.)
inflorescence
group of flowers
Hint:
peduncle
stalk of inflorescence/single flower
Hint:
Panicle
compound raceme
Hint:
Raceme
simple indeterminate inflorescence in which the flowers are borne on short pedicels lying along a common axis, as in the lily of the valley
Hint:
Corymb
form of inflorescence in which the flowers form a flat-topped or convex cluster, the outermost flowers being the first to open
Hint:
petals
colorful (collectively=corolla)
sepals
green (collectively=calyx)
stamens
the pollen-bearing organ of a flower; [filament+anther]
pistil
the seed-bearing organ of a flower; [style+stigma]; also = the carpel
Impatiens glandulifera
Himalayan balsam
Hint:
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Term:
Definition:
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