Anatomy and Physiology of farm animals Test 3 Flashcards

Terms Definitions
Vessels, arteries, veins, pumping organ
What the blood vascular system is comprised of
Ateries
Move blood away from the heart (Efferent)
Veins
move blood toward the hear (afferent)
Pulmonary circulation, portal circulation, systematic circulation
the three types of circulation
Lymph and Blood Vascular system
What the Circulatory system is comprised of
tissue spaces
where does the lumph system begin?
Anterior Vena Cava
where does the lymph system end?
lacks proteins, contains lymphocytes
How is lymph different than blood plasma?
help Fight foreign invaders
The purpose of lymphocytes
Transport gasses, nutrients, waste, regulatory substances
ct as clotting mechanism
Functions of the circulatory system
vitamins, minerals, hormones, enzymes
types of regulatory substances
Main, body defense
2 clotting mechanisms
7.4
the pH of blood
bright red
oxygenated blood color
Dark red
deoxygenated blood color
Cellular elements, plasma
Major components of blood
Erythrocytes
Another name for RBC's
Granular, agranular
types of WBC's
Neutrophylls, esinophylls, basophylls
Granular WBC's
Lymphocytes, monocytes
agranular WBCs
Transport medium
Funciton of plasma
no
does serum have a clotting factor?
Myeloid tissue, lymphoid tissue
2 basic areas of blood production
bone marrow
where is myeloid tissue found
RBC, granular WBC's Platelets
What is produced in the myeloid tissue
Agranular WBC's
what is produced in the lymphoid tissue
Red, Yellow, White, gelatenous
4 types of myeloid tissue
blood
red myeloid forms what?
decreaced RBM increased YBM
As an animal ages what happens to bone marrow amounts?
Ribs, sternum pelvis, sometimes vertebrae
where is RBM found in an adult?
Longbones, femur, ulna
where is RBM found in young animals?
Emergency response
when can YBM revert back to RBM?
transport O2 and CO2
function of erythrocytes
65% Water, 33% Hemoglobin, 2% mix protein, lipid, vitamin, mineral
Composition of RBC
biconcave disk
shape of RBC
7.5 microns
diameter of RBC
7-10 million
how many RBC's are in one cc of blood?
no nucleus
describe the nucleus of an RBC
Erythrocyte
A mature RBC is called
Reticulocyte
an immature RBC is called
weblike appearance (bluish threads) within the cell
What do reticulocytes appear like?
200-300 million
how many molecules of hemoglobin are in one RBC?
Principle transport medium of blood
function of Hb
increased production of Hb for more effecient gas exchange
hypoxia causes?
Oxyhemoglobin
Hb + O2
Carbohemoglobin
Hb +CO2
1
how many iron receptors are on one molecule of Hem?
4
How many molecules of hem are there per globin?
1
how many O2 can 1 Fe++ carry
4
how many possible molecules of O2 can be carried by one Hb?
RBM
where are RBC's formed?
Hemohistoblast
Precursor cell to RBC's found in the RBM (nucleated cell)
hemohistoblast --> arithroblast --> Reticuloblast --> reticulocyte --> Arithrocyte
outline the formation of RBC's
hormone regulation and nervous system
what is RBC under the control of?
hypoxia -->hypothalamus signals kidneys to secrete erythropoitea --> targets RBM --> increased production of RBM
outline the stress-induced increased production of RBC's (reversion of RBM)
4-120 days
lifespan of a RBC
90 days
AVG life of an RBC
Reticulo-endothelial system
responsible for the removal of old RBC's
Hemolysis
destruction of red blood cells with liberation of hemoglobin into the surrounding medium
Porphyrin ring and iron
structure of Hem
Amino Acid material
what is globin constructed of?
Iron
portion of Hem that is reused
Porphyrin ring
portion of Hem that is not reused
Reticulo-endothelial system
How is the used porphyrin ring disposed?
Neutrophils, Eosinophils, Basophils
types of Granular WBC's
Neutrophils
Contains a many lobed nucleus, acts as the first line of defense, is actively amoeboid and phagocytic, helps fight acute infections
acute infections
what do neutrophils help fight?
Eosinophils
Increase during chronic or parasitic infections, amoeboid in shape, increase during allergic Rxns and detoxify forein proteins
60-65 %
proportion of WBCs that are neutrophils
4%
proportion of WBC's that are Eosinophils
Basophils
Not present in any significant #,
will increase during leukemia, small pox, Hodgkins, disease, Chicken pox
Monocytes, Lymphocytes
2 types of Agranular WBC's
monocytes
An agranular leukocyte that is able to migrate into tissues and transform into a macrophage.
Lymphocytes
amoeboid cells which form antibodies to increase immunity
large and small
the 2 types of lymphocytes
Thrombocytes
smalles blood element, which origniates in the megacarocyte. Produces thrombokinase
Megacarocyte
Another name for bone marrow
Thrombokinase
enzyme used in blood clotting process
90% H20 10% solids
Plasma-fluid proportions
antibodies
electrolytes
monosaccharaides
amino acid material (peptide, polypeptide)
lipids
regulatory compounds (hormones and enzymes)
proteins
minerals
vitamins
solids found in the blood conist of?
fibrinogen, globulins, albumin, albimunen
types of proteins foudn in plasma-fluid portion of the blood
form and impervious cover for damaged tissue to keep out foreign material
purpose of clotting
Clotting
sequential series of enzymatic reactions upon various substrates
when plateletes rupture
when is thrombokinase released?
thrombokinase combines with ionized calcium and attacks prothrombin
what happens when ruptured platelets come in contact with damaged tissue
prothrombin
plasma protein; converted to thrombin in the clotting process
Fibrinogen
A blood protein essential to blood clotting. The conversion of fibrinogen to its active form (fibrin) is among the final steps in clot formation, and is triggered by thrombin.
decreased temperature, venoms, liver trauma
factors which slow down clotting time
increased temperature, adrenalines, contact with rough texture
factors which speed up clotting time
heart
where does the anatomy of the blood circulatory system begin and end?
pericardium
a double-layered serous membrane that surrounds the heart
Epicardium
outermost layer of the heart
Endocardium
inner lining of the heart
myocardium
thick middle muscle layer of the heart; pumps blood through the circulatory system
atrium
upper chamber of the heart that receives and holds blood that is about to enter the ventricle
ventricle
a chamber of the heart that receives blood from an atrium and pumps it to the arteries
atrial-ventricular valve
valve which separates the atrium and ventricle
ateries
tubular structures which carry blood away from the heart
elastic
large arteries are?
maintains blood pressure
a function of arteries
arterioles
smaller, thinner branches of arteries, carry blood to capillaries
terminations of arterioles which supply cappilaries
position of smooth muscle sphinctors located in arterioles
prevent backflow into the capillaries
one purpose of arterioles
capillaries
tiny, thin-walled blood vessels that allow the exchange of gases and nutrients between the blood and the cells of the body
venioles
smalles veins that carry blood toward the heart
veins
blood vessels that carry waste containing blood from the tissues back to the heart
larger
veins are usually _______ than the corresponding arteries
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