Chapter 15 Society and Economy Under the Old Regime in the 18th Century Flashcards

Terms Definitions
Old Regime
Pre 1789, term to desribe the pre-revolutionary period in France and the absolute monarchies and growing bureaucracies in Great Britain. Although it was a time of tradition, social hierarchy, and privelege the Old Regime was not a static community, but rather the beginnings of revolution in agriculture, politics, and social spheres.
Title for a French aristocratic landowners. They had dominion over the banalites, or serfs, and the power to invoke corvee in France.
Aristocratic resurgence
During the eighteenth century the nobility made up an approximation of five percent of the population in all European nations. This resurgence of aristocracy was the nobles' reactions to the encroachment of their individual rights and priveleges as high class by the expansion of monarchies. They demonstrated this through exclusivity, reserved military positions, attempt to use their office to control levels of the monarchy, and to benefit financially by levying higher taxes on serfs.
A french word for serfs. These peasants were under complete obedience to the seigneur
Practice of forced labor under the French aristocracy. Seigneurs could require certain number of days per year of labor.
French word meaning "twentieth." This references to the French income tax that all nobles of the Old Regime were technically bound to pay. However, the nobles never paid the total sum. This exemption from taxes was another privelege of the nobles, while the peasants of the day were taxed unmerciously.
Emelyan Pugachev
(1726-1775) Led Pugachev's Rebellion from 1773 to 1775. This peasant revolt was the largest in Russian history. Pugachev promised the serfs their own private land and freedom from their landlords.
Nobility within Parliament that had power over the wealthy landowners. They did this through the English legislature on hunting which they could legally "sue" wealthy poachers, and to employ gamekeepers to protect game from poachers.
Family economy
With the family as the center of production and consumption, this economic system existed in most European towns and cities. Originated mostly in farms, artisan worshops, and in small merchant shops.
The practice of young men and women leaving home to marry and create their own indepedent households. This happened on average when men were in at least 26, and women were 23, a later age for marriage in the 18th century.
Land tax that nobles were exempt from paying, which burdened other parts of society.
Jenthro Tull
(1674-1741) English agricultural innovator that helped fund his own experiments and provide for others. He pursued the use of iron plows and planting wheat by drill to improve agricultural practices of the time.
Agricultural Revolution
The series of innovations in agriculture within Europe in order to significantly change the directions of social and economic life. Besides new inventions to increase production of crops, better ways to cultivate the land, and a larger variety of crops helped improve
Robert Blakewell
(1725-1795) English agricultural improver. His studies included intensive work with animal breeding which improved the production of milk and meat.
Open Field Method
The conventional method of small farmers in England in which two to three field systems rotated each year, laying fallow for certain periods of time. Animals also were allowed to graze on these lands. This system, although it provided a steady supply of food for the given population, there was no way to increase. By 1700 half of the arable land in England employed this method of farming.
Used in the open field method in order to use land more rationally and to increase profit. This drawing of boundaries led to disputes and even riots between landowners.
Seed Drill
Invented by the agricultural improver, Jethro Tull. This invention helped increase wheat production by drilling seeds into fallowed ground rather than the conventional process of scattering seeds at random.
Crop Rotation
System of crop cultivation that replaced the open field method. Developed by Charles Townsend, this system used wheat, turnips, barley, and clover while also sharing the land with animals to ensure meat supply.
The development of government control over commerce and industrial production in order to profit the greatest from outside counterparts. This system was very popular between European nations and their colonies.
Textile Production
With this system, urban textile merchants would take wool or raw fibers to the homes of peasants.
Domestic system
Was a basic industry within the family economy of Europe, especially regarding textile production in Britain.
Spinning jenny
Invented by James Hargreaves in 1778. At first the machine could spin 16 spindles of thread; by 1800 it could spin 120 spindles.
Water frame
Patented in 1769, this water-powered device was designed to purify cotton to produce a durable and cleaner fabric. This invention increassed the demand for cotton production, would increase 800 percent between 1780and 1800.
Edward Cartwright
(1743-1822) Invented the power loom for machine weaving in the late 1780s. Although this was a highly innovative machine, the true effect was not seen until the late 1830s once the majority of weavers had made the switch from hand weaving to machine weaving.
Richard Arkwright
(1732-1792) Inventor of the water frame. Although he patented the cotton purification machine, he eventually lost his patent and many manufacturing plants adopted their own versions of his invention to supply the high demand of cotton.
James Watt
(1736-1819) Scottish engineer and machine maker. His work with the Newcomen steam engine model led to his separation of the piston and the condensor in order to achieve greater efficiency. This invention was the first steam engine able to run textile machinery within large cities. This invention not only increased efficiency of textile production, but also made way for further urbanization and industrialization.
Thomas Newcomen
(1663-1729) Invented the first model of the steam engine equipped with a condensed cynlinder and the falling of the piston. However, the burdensome qualities of his model made the device untransportable. However, found a practical use in the English mines where it was used to pump water out of the mines.
Henry Cort
(1740-1800) Invented a new puddling process that changed the creative process of molten ore. His process removed more impurities from the mixture and allowed for a more pure metal. He further developed a roller mill to shape the molten rock
Impact of Steel
Innovations in the production of molten iron, and the strengths of new steel, led to cheaper production and further advancements in transportation and industry.
Priscilla Wakefield
(1750-1832) English writer that advocated greater employment opportunites for women. Believed that women should receive equal pay for equal work, despite the common prejudices of their physical inferiority to men. With the further industrialization of the economy, Wakefield believed that occupations were closing to women.
The middle class within European cities. This group consisted of wealthy merchants, trades people, bankers, and professionals. This diverse and divided social class possessed less wealth than the nobility, but more than the urban artisans. The middle class also were a part of the leading consumers.
Patrons or wealthy supporters of artisans or other workers within the city.
Workers dependent upon the patronage of their individual patrician.
Working Guilds
Medievial creation in which a group that all possessed skills in a particular craft would create an allegiance (premature business) for social and economic advancement. The chief protection for artisans against eh workings of the commericial market.
A separate community, usually defined by a distinct race, culture, or language. These distinct districts of the Old Regime were mostly Jewish villages interspered among the countryside.
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