(Somewhat complete) Science Test: Fossils, fossil fuels, alternative energy, etc Flashcards

Terms Definitions
What is any natural material that is used by humans?
Natural resources
Where does the energy we get from many of our natural resources ultimately come from?
The Sun ('s energy)
What can be replaced at the same rate that it is used and is a natural resource?
Renewable resources
What is a resource that forms at a rate much slower than the rate at which it is consumed?
Nonrenewable resources
Where do we get most of our energy from?
Nonrenewable resources
What is the process of reusing materials from waste or scrap?
Recycling
What are natural resources that humans use to generate energy?
Energy resources
What is a nonrenewable energy resource that is formed from the remains of plants and animals that lived a long time ago?
Fossil Fuels
What forms fossil fuels?
The buried remains of ancient organisms
All living things are made up of...
Carbon
What is a liquid mixture of a complex hydrocarbon compounds that more than 40% of the world's energy comes from?
Petroleum
What is a mixture of gaseous hydrocarbons used as fuel?
Natural Gas
What is a main component of Natural gas?
Methane
What is a solid fossil fuel formed underground from partially decomposed plant material?
Coal
What does buried Microscopic sea organisms form?
Petroleum and Natural gas
What are rocks that fluids such as petroleum and gas can move through?
Permeable Rocks
Millions of years from now, the remains of our sea life will become....
petroleum and natural gas
How was coal used in the past in the U.S?
To heat homes and for transportation
Why did people stop using coal?
Because cleaner energy resources can available (coal created a lot of pollution)
What is a brown, crumbly, matter made of plant material, burned for heat or used as fuel?
Peat
What type of coal has pressure and heat applied to peat that forces out water and gases, creating coal that is about 70% carbon?
Lignite
What type of coal is sedimented and pressure forced water and gases out of liginite to create coal that is about 80% carbon?
Bituminous Coal
What is the hardest type of coal, that is about 90% carbon and burns the cleaniest out of all the other coals.
Anthracite
How are petroleum and natural gas removed from the Earth's crust?
By drilling wells
What is a process by which soil and rock are stripped from Earth's surface to expose underlying coal?
Surface Mining
What are the five types of Surface Mining?
Strip Mining, Open-pit Mining, Mountaintop removal, Dredging and Highwall Mining
What is the process of returning land to its orginal condition after mining is completed?
Reclamation
What is the term used to describe a mineral deposit that is large enough and pure enough to be mined for profit?
Ore
Conditions that are important in the formation of minerals consist of...
Pressence of groundwater, evaporation and volcanic activity
What have shiny surfaces, are good conductors of heat and electricity, and are used to make aircraft, automobiles, etc?
Metallic Minerals
What have dull surfaces and are good insulators of electricity and are used to make roads, buildings, bridges, etc?
Nonmetallic Minerals
What is rain, sleet, or snow that has a high concentration of acids, and often because of air pollutants?
Acid Precipitation
What are problems caused by coal mining?
It removes soil that some organisims need for survival and also can destroy wildlife habitats
What are problems caused by producing, transporting, and using petroleum?
It can accidently spill toxic oil into the ocean
What is the photochemic haze that forms when sunlight acts on industrial pollutants and burning fossil fuels?
Smog
Large cities have smog problems because they have...
millions of automobiles and mountains that create or keep pollution in the air
What are some problems with Fossil Fuels?
It is nonrenewable and won't be available for many years if used up and it creates massive amounts of pollution
What is the energy released by a fisson or fussion reaction?
Nuclear Energy
What is the use of a windmill to drive an electric generator that creates renewable energy?
Wind Power
What is electrical energy produced by falling water?
Hydroelectric Energy
What is any organic matter that can be used as a source of energy?
Biomass
The process by which the nuclei of radioactive atoms are split into two or more smaller nuceli is...
Fission
The joining of two or more nuclei to form a larger nucleus is...
Fusion
The energy produced within the eath is called...
Geothermal Energy
What are natural vents that discharge geothermal steam or water into the air?
Geysers
What is the energy released when a chemical compound reacts to produce new compounds?
Chemical Energy
What are created by combining hydrogen and oxygen?
Fuel cells
What is energy recieved by the sun?
Solar energy
What are the remains or traces of ancient life?
Fossils
All of the fossils that have exsited through the history of life is the...
Fossil Record
A scientist who studies the fossil record are called...
paleontologists
How are fossils formed?
Fossils are formed when an organisim is somehow buried and minerals replace the remains. Over years, the fossils areburied and become sediments or the material that buried the organism becomes the fossil itself (amber)
What is the process that states that rock layers at the top of a dig tend to be youger then the deeper fossils. And fossils found next to each other are figured to be the same age?
Relative Dating
What are factors that "mess" with Relative Dating?
Erosion, Intrusion, Earthquakes and folding
What is the process of using radioactive elements and the idea of half time (decay of radioactive materials) compartision to determine the actual age of a fossil?
Absolute Dating
When was the formation of the Earth and the Moon?
4.6 Billion Years Ago
When did the Earliest life forms Appear?
3.9 Billion Years Ago
When did land plants appear on Earth?
420 Million Years Ago
When did the largest mass extinction of living things occur?
248 Million years ago
When did Dinosaur Extinction happen?
65 Million Years Ago
When did the first hominids appear?
4 million years ago
What are the Eras? (Name them)
Precambrian, Paleozoic, Mesozoic, Cenozoic
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