Prentice Hall Chemistry Chapter 19: Acids, Bases, and Salts Flashcards

Terms Definitions
Tastes sour
Acid
Changes the color of an acid-base indicator (acid, base, or both)
Both
Can be strong or weak electrolytes in aqueous solution
Acid
In drinks, citrus, pop, etc.
Acid
This acid is associated with protein
amino acid
Used in fragrances and flavors
Acid
Type of acid in DNA and RNA
nucleic acid
Gastric acid is also known as
HCl
Cleaning agents, antacids
Base
Example: milk of magnesia
Base
React with acids
Base
Used in making soaps, detergents, etc
Base
Used in chemical reactions (making polymers, drugs, etc)
Base
React with metals to produce hydrogen gas
Acid
Used as preservative (foods)
Acid
Slippery feel
Acid
Bitter taste
Base
Used as antacids (neutralization reaction)
Base
Three types of acids and bases: (hint: in alphabetical order)
Arrhenius, Bronsted-Lowry, Lewis
Said that acids are hydrogen-containing compounds that ionize to yield hydrogen ions (H+) in aqueous solutions.
Arrhenius
Said that bases are compounds that ionize to yield hydroxide ions (OH-) in aqueous solution
Arrhenius
Acids that contain one ionizable hydrogen
Monoprotic
Acids that contain two ionizable hydrogens
Diprotic
Acids that contain three ionizable hydrogens
Triprotic
Example of monoprotic acids (formula)
HNO3
Example of diprotic acid (formula)
H₂SO₄
Example of triprotic acids (formula)
H₃PO₄
Example of monoprotic acid (name)
nitric acid
Example of diprotic acid (name)
sulfuric acid
Example of triprotic acid (name)
phosphoric acid
True or False: All compounds that contain hydrogen are acids
False
Formula for potassium hydroxide
KOH
Formula for sodium hydroxide
NaOH
Formula for Calcium hydroxide
Ca(OH)₂
Formula for Magnesium hydroxide
Mg(OH)₂
Who defines an acid as a hydrogen-ion donor
Bronsted-Lowry
Who defines a base as a hydrogen-ion acceptor
Bronsted-Lowry
According to Bronsted-Lowry, is ammonia a base or acid?
Base
Vocabulary: The particle formed when a base gains a hydrogen ion
Conjugate acid
The particle that remains when an acid has donated a hydrogen ion
Conjugate base
Consists of two substances related by the loss or gain of a single hydrogen ion.
Conjugate acid-base pair
A water molecule that gains a hydrogen ion becomes a positively charged _________
hydronium ion
The conjugate base of the acid HCl (what ion?)
Chloride ion
Conjugate acid of the base water (what ion?)
hydronium ion
Conjugate base of HCl (formula)
Cl-
Conjugate acid of Cl-
HCl
Conjugate base of H₂SO₄
HSO₄⁻
Conjugate acid of HSO₄⁻
H2SO4
Conjugate base of H₂O
OH-
Conjugate acid of OH-
H₂O
Conjugate base of NH₄⁺
NH₃
Conjugate acid of CH₃COO-
CH₃COOH
Conjugate base of CH₃COOH
CH3COO-
A substance can act as both an acid and a base is said to be ___________
amphoteric
Example of amphoteric substance (common name)
water
Who proposed that an acid accepts a pair of electrons during a reaction?
Lewis
Who proposed an base donates a pair of electrons during a reaction?
Lewis
According to Lewis, an acid (accepts/donates) a pair of electrons during a reaction
accepts
According to Lewis, an base (accepts/donates) a pair of electrons during a reaction
donates
According to Lewis, a substance can accept or donate a pair of electrons to form a ____ bond
covalent
According to Arrhenius, an acid is an H⁺________
producer
According to Arrhenius, a base is an OH- _____
producer
According to Bronsted-Lowry, an acid is an H⁺______
donor
According to Bronsted-Lowry, a base is an H+ _____
acceptor
According to Lewis, an acid is an electron-pair_____
acceptor
According to Lewis, a base is an electron pair _______
donor
The reaction in which water molecules produce ions is called
self-ionization
Any aqueous solution in which [H+] and [OH-] are equal is described as a _______ ________
neutral solution
In any aqueous solution, when [H+] increases, [OH-] _____
decreases
When [H+] ______, [OH-] increases
decreases
For aqueous solutions, the product of the hydrogen-ion concentration and the hydroxide-ion concentration equals =
1.0 x 10⁻¹⁴
The product of the concentrations of the hydrogen ions and hydroxide ions in water is called the (long name)
ion-product constant for water
The ion-product constant for water
Kw
True or false: not all solution are neutral
true
Type of solution in which [H+] is greater than [OH-]
acidic
The [H+] of an acidic solution is greater than 1 x 10^? M
-7
Type of solution in which [H+] is less than [OH-]
basic
The [H+] of a basic solution is less than 1 x 10^?M
-7
Basic solutions are also known as ______ solutions
alkaline
The pH scale ranges from __ to __
0, 14
A pH of 0 is strongly
acidic
A pH of 14 is strongly
basic
The __ of a solution is the negative logarithm of the hydrogen-ion concentration
pH
-log[H+] =
pH
Neutral solutions have a pH of
7
Acidic solutions have a pH lower than
7
Basic solutions have a pH ____ than
higher
The ____ of a solution equals the negative logarithm of the hydroxide-ion concentration
pOH
-log[OH-] = ___
pOH
A neutral solution has a pOH of
7
A solution with a pOH < 7
basic
A solution with a pOH >7
acidic
pH + pOH =
14
pH = 14 - ___
pOH
____ = 14 - pH
pOH
For precise and continuous measurements, what sort of device would you use to measure the pH of a substance?
meter
An acid or a base that undergoes dissociation in a known pH range
indicator
A valuable tool for measuring pH because its acid form and base have different colors in solution
indicator
Acids are classified as strong or weak depending on the degree to which they ___ in water
ionize
___ acids are completely ionized in aqueous solutions
strong
___ acids ionize only slightly in aqueous solution
weak
Acid dissociation constant
Ka
Ka is what constant? _____ ___________
Acid dissociation
Weak acids have ____ Ka values
small
Strong acids have ___ Ka values
large
___ bases dissociate completely into metal ions and hydroxide ions in aqueous solution
strong
____ bases react with water to form the hydroxide ion and the conjugate acid of the base
weak
Base dissociation constant
Kb
Kb is what constant? ____ _________
base dissociation
Reactions in which an acid and a base react in an aqueous solution to produce a salt and water are called
neutralization reactions
In general, the reaction of an acid with a base produces and ______
salt
Compounds consisting of an anion from an acid and a cation from a base
salt
When an acid and base are mixed, the ____________ _________ is when the number of moles of hydrogen ions equals the number of moles of hydroxide ions
equivalence point
The number of moles of hydrogen ions provided by an acid are equivalent to the number of _________ ions provided by the base
hydroxide
You can determine the concentration of acid (or base) in a solution by performing a __________________ reaction
neutralization
The process of adding a known amount of solution of known concentration to determine the concentration of another solution is called
titration
The solution of known concentration is called the
standard solution
The point at which the indicator changes color is the ______ _______ of the titration
end point
The point of neutralization is the _____ point of the titration
end
A salt consists of an ____ of an acid and a ____ of a base
anion, cation
True or false: all salts are neutral
false
In this process, the cations or anions of a dissociated salt remove hydrogen ions from or donate hydrogen ions to water
salt hydrolysis
Salts that produce acidic solutions contain ________ ions that release protons to water
positive
Salts that produce basic solutions contain (negative/positive) ions that attract (neutrons, protons, electrons)
negative, protons
Strong acid + Strong base = ______ solution
neutral
Strong acid + Weak base = _________ solution
acidic
Weak acid + Strong base = ________ solution
basic
______ is a solution in which the pH remains relatively constant when small amounts of acid or base are added
buffer
A buffer is a solution of a ____ acid and on of its salts, or a solution of a ____ base and one of its salts
weak, weak
True or false: A buffer solution is better able to resist drastic changes in pH than is purse water
true
The amount of acid or base that can be added to a puffer solution before a significant change in pH occurs
buffer capacity
A base is a source of ______________ ions
hydroxide
# of buffer systems crucial in maintaining human blood pH within a narrow range (pH 7.35-7.45)
2
Name the buffer system involving etha--
ethanoic acid-ethanoate ion
Name the buffer system involving dihy--
dihydrogen phosphate ion-hydrogenphosphate ion,
Name the buffer system involving ca--
carbonic acid-hydrogen carbonate ion
Name the buffer system involving amm-
ammonium ion-ammonia
Which of these is not crucial to human blood? (A) Ammonium ion-ammonia, (B) ethanoic acid-ethanoate ion, (C) Dihydrogen phosphate-monohydrogen phosphate
B
What type of type of salt produces an acidic solution? One that contains ________ ____ _____ _______ ____________ _____ __________
positive ions that release protons to water
What type of salt produces a basic solution? One that contains ________ ____ _____ _______ ____________ _____ __________
negative ions that attract protons from water
/ 140
Term:
Definition:
Definition:

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