AP Chem Unit 6: Liquids, Solids, and Properties of Solutions Flashcards

Terms Definitions
_ and _ share many similar characteristics
liquids and solids
intermolecular forces def
attractive forces between molecules holding them in a form to create liquids and solids
gases are characterized by a _ of _ _
lack of intermolecular forces
intermolecular forces are _ than bonds
weaker
molecules remain _
intact
intemolecular forces list strongest to weakest
h-bond, dipole-dipole, london dispersion
two primary types of intermolecular forces
dipole-dipole and london dispersion
h-bond is a very strong type of _
dipole-dipole
h-bond is between
H and F, O, N
dipole-dipole
between two polar molecules
london dispersion
non-polar molecules create a temporary polar molecule
strong intermolecular forces relate to _ and _
higher boiling points and higher freezing temperatures
characteristics of the liquid state
low compressibility, lack of rigidity, and high density compared to gases
surface molecules in a liquid are subject to
attraction from below and toward the sides
if intermolecular forces are stronger than exterior forces...
the solution tries to minimize the surface area. droplets
if intermolecular forces are weaker than exterior forces
the solution tries to maximize surface area
surface tension
resistance of a liquid to increase surface area
capillary action
spontaneous rising of a liquid in a narrow tube
two types of forces in capillary action
cohesive and adhesive
cohesive forces
inside the liquid
adhesive forces
forces between the liquid and the sides of the container
glass has a lot of _ _ with _ for _ _ _
oxygen molecules with attractions for water's H atoms
viscosity
the measure of the liquid's resistance to flow
high capacity to form H bonds
increases viscosity
large molecules are _ viscous because...
more because they become entangled
solids can be classified by
crystalline solids and amorphous solids
crystalline solids
highly regular pattern. composed of repeating unit cells that make up a lattice
amorphous solids
irregular
types of solids
ionic, molecular, atomic
ionic solids
dissolve in water and conduct electricity
molecular solids
may dissolve in water but do NOT conduct electricity
atomic solids
graphite, diamond, silicon, metals, etc. conduction of electricity depends on whether metal or non-metal
ionic and molecular solids are either _ or _
crystalline or amorphous
unit cell
smallest repeating pattern of a lattice
metals are characterized by
high thermal and electrical conductivity
metal structure
hard spheres that efficiently utilize all of the space. second layer moves into indentations of the layer below
metal structure patterns
a-b-a and a-b-c
accounts for the properties of solids
bonding
ionic bonds are
strong but brittle
brittle
do not bend
metallic bonding accounts for
the malleability and ductility
metallic bonding must be
strong and non-directional
simplest explanation of metallic bonding
electron sea
in metallic bonds, electrons
move easily around all of the atoms
alloys
mixtures of metals
network atomic solids
nonmetals with directional covalent bonds
carbon occurs in
allotropes of diamond, graphite, and fullerenes
allotropes
different forms
silicon-oxygen compound aka
silica, sand
silica forms
a network of SiO4 tetrahedra
when heated, silica becomes
amorphous solid, glass
makes silica a semiconductive element
a few electrons can cross the gap at 25°C
molarity def
describes how dilute or concentrate
molarity
mol/L of sol'n
mass percent
mass solute 1/total mass
mole fraction
Xa=mol A/total mol
molality
mol of solute/kg solvent
factors affecting solubility
must overcome intermolecular forces. like dissolves like polarity, energy, and pressure
pressure affects the solubility of
gas only. NOT l or s
enthalpy
heat
enthalpy of solution
energy change associated with the formation of a solution
three steps of formation of a solution
1 breaking of solute in individual steps (endothermic)
2 overcoming intermolecular forces to make room for the solvent (endothermic)
3 allowing the solute and solvent to interact (exothermic)
enthalpy of hydration
the solute/solvent interaction
colligative properties
concentration of solute affects the boiling point and the freezing point
boiling point elevation
ΔT=Kb*Msolute
freezing point depression
ΔT=Kf*Msolute
phase diagrams are
based on a closed system
critical temperature
temperature at which the vapor cannot be liquified, no matter what the pressure
critical pressure
pressure required to produce liquification at the critical temperature
critical point
critical temperature+critical pressure
fluid region
neither liquid nor vapor
compressibility
a measure of how much the volume of matter decreases under pressure
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