AP Bio, Section I: Chemistry Review and Organic Molecules Flashcards

Terms Definitions
atom
basic unit of an element with the element's characteristic properties
protons
positively charged subatomic particles located in the nucleus
neutrons
uncharged subatomic particles located in the nucleus
electrons
negatively charged particles that circle the nucleus
valence electrons
electrons situated in the orbitals farthest from the nucleus that are involved in chemical reactions
valence shell
outermost orbital of electrons
chemical compound
combination of two or more atoms in a fixed ratio
chemical reaction
forms a compound by creating chemical bonds between atoms
ionic bond
transfer of electrons from one atom to another
covalent bond
electrons are shared between two atoms
nonpolar covalent bond
electrons are shared equally between atoms
polar covalent bond
electrons are shared unequally between the atoms
polarity
in the case of water, its H atoms have a partial negative charge while its O has a partial positive charge, allowing it to form hydrogen bonds
hydrogen bond
weak chemical bond formed when an H atom is completely bonded to an electronegative atom, but is also attracted to another electronegative atom
cohesion
water molecules' tendency to stick together
adhesion
water molecules' tendency to stick to other things
surface tension
measure of how difficult it is to stretch or break the surface of a liquid; product of water's adhesive and cohesive forces
capillary action
water's ability to travel up the roots, stems/trunks, branches of plants
specific heat (heat capacity)
ability to store heat. water has a very high specific heat, therefore making it difficult to change the temperature of a body of water
acid
solution containing H+ ions and a pH less than 7
base
solution containing OH- ions and a pH greater than 7
organic compound
compound containing carbon
inorganic compound
compound that doesn't contain carbon
carbohydrate
main source of energy
monosaccharide
energy source for cells; i.e. glucose and fructose
disaccharides
combination of two monosaccharides after removal of a water molecule; i.e. maltose
glycosidic bond
bond between monosaccharides resulting from dehydration synthesis
dehydration synthesis (condensation)
removal of a water molecule to form a new compound
hydrolysis
adding water to restore the original compound to its pre-dehydration synthesis state
polysaccharide
repeating units of monosaccharides used as a storage form of sugar; polymer; i.e. starch, cellulose, glycogen
polymer
molecule with repeating subunits of same general type
plastids
where plants store glucose as starch
cellulose
makes up cell wall
glycogen
storage unit of glucose in animal liver and muscle cells
chitin
makes up exoskeleton of arthropods
dipeptide
two amino acids joined by their carboxyl groups
polypeptide bond
bond between amino acids
polypeptide
string of amino acids
lipids
fats, oils, phospholipids, and steroids
proteins
made up of amino acids; enzymes
neutral fats (triglyceride)
three fatty acids and one glycerol
ester linkage
bond between three fatty acids and glycerol
saturated fat
single covalent bond between a pair of carbon atoms
unsaturated fat
double covalent bonds between adjacent carbon atoms
phospholipids
two fatty, hydrophobic tails and one phosphate, hydrophilic head
hydrophobic
water fearing
hydrophilic
water loving
steroids
four linked carbon rings
nucleic acids
made of nucleotides
deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA)
nucleotides, sugar, phosphate, and a base bonded down one side
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