a molecule that speeds up the reaction by bringing the reactants together, and the enzyme may even participate in the reaction but it is unchanged by it.
Not soluble in water. (water hating)
Soluble in water (water loving)
a specific group of bonded atoms that always reacts in the the same way, regardless of the particular carbon skeleton. the reactivity of a n organic molecule is largely depended on the attached functional groups.
Examples:Hydroxyl, carbonyl, amino groups. determines the reactivity of a molecule.
are organic molecules that have identical molecular formulas bu a different arrangement of atoms. they react differently, depite having the same exact formulas. example: glucaose and fructose.
(major source of cellular energy.)
the function of carbohydrates is to provide cellular fuel. starch is the storage carbohydrate in plants. Plants store glucose as starch. (ie POTATO AND FRENCHIE FRIES)
the storage carbohydrate in animals. glucuse is stored as glycogen. When blood sugars drop, the liver releases glucose into the blood. After eating, whe the blood sugar levels rise, the pancrease releases insulin to assist the storage of glucose.
-Structuaral polysaccarides for plants
- most abundant(plentiful) carb and organic molecule.
-retains the regularity of eliminationm a dietary fiber.
long chains of sugars
consist of only one sugar molecule. simple sugars.
Same molecular formula, different arrangement.
Found in the fungal cell walls and exoskeletons of crabs insects...
like cellullose, it cannot be digested by animals, but humans found many good uses for chitin.
can be coated to seeds which protexts them from attack by soil fungi. and used in meds as a wound dressing and suture material.
The chemistry of organisms,
CONTAINS: carbon and hydrogen atoms ALWAYS.
|difference between organic and inorganic chemistry||
inorganic - contains + & - ions,
- usually ionic bonding
- small number of atoms
- associated with nonliving matter
organic - CARBON AND HYDRGOEN
- always covalent bond
often large with many atoms
- associated with living organisms
|What are the four classes of organic molecules? What are they made of? Example?||
Proteins - polypeptide - amino acids
Lipids - fat - glycerol and fatty acids
Carbohydrates - polysaccarides - monosaccarides
Nucleic Acids - DNA RNA - nucleotide
|Synthesis (anabolic) Reaction||
When atoms or molecules form a larger/complex molecule.
|What is a decomposition ( catabolic) reaction?||
Bonds are broken
|What happens during a dehydration (synthesis reaction)?||
A cell use the same type of condensation reaction to sythesis any type of macromolecule. And -oh and a -h is removed as the reaction occurs.
BASICALLY- A water molecule is removed
- a larger molecule is created
EXAMPLE - Dissacarides are formed from a dehydration reaction of 2 monassacarides
an -OH group from the water attaches to one subunit and an -H from water attaches to the otehr subunit. IOW- Water is used to break the bond holding units together.
BASICALLY - a water moleccule is added
- Breaking bonds of 2 smaller molecules.
|What is the function of Carbohydrates?||
- Used as an IMMEDIATE energy source in living things. But also play a structual roll.
- majority of carbs have a c to H to O ratio of 1:2:1
-Consist of only a single sugar molecule. (simple sugars)
-backbone of 3-7 carbons.
- GLUCOSE - (C6H12O6), several isomers (fructose, galactoce) , transported in blood o fanimal that is broken down in nearly all types of organsism using cellular repiration (resulting in ATP molecules)
- Major source of cellular fuel for all living things.
* varied uses
- COntains 2 monosaccarides that have joined in a dehydration reaction.
Sucrose is sugar that is in the form that transports plants.
Lactose - is glucose combinged with galactose. Lactose intolerant people cannot break this down.
*energy storage molecules
- polymers (long chains of sugar molecules) of monosaccarides.
some function as storage molecules because they are not soluble in water and are larger than a sugar. so they cannot easilt pass through the cell membrane.
- Broken down to release energy (startch - plants, glycogen - animals)
STRUCtual - Cellulose and chitin.
Cellulose bond - just glucose. most abundant
Chitin bond - Attached amino group
*cannot be digested by animals but by hymas (both)
Insoluble in water due to their hydrocarbon chains.
- FAT. Used as both insulations and a long term energy source. Plants use oil instead of fat for long term storage.
Types: Triglycerides, phospholipids, and steroids.
Saturated fat and unsaturated fat.
***Long term energy source
2 types of subunits: glycerol and fattyacids.
- Compound with 3 -OH groups. The - Oh groups are polar therefore, is soluble in water. Whena far or oil oforms the portions of 3 fatty acids react with -Oh groups in dehydration.
*the 3 fatty acids + 1 glycerol = Tri +Cerids
Fatty acids - saturated and unsaturated
Saturated- Have no double bonds between carbon atoms (higher temp) (HEALTHIER) (SOlid at room temperature)
Unsaturated - Even one double bond = Unsaturated
(melt at lower temp) (
Plasma Membrane is made of this.
- Have hydrolic haead and hydrophobic tails.
- Contain a phosphate group - constructed like a fat
*** Four fused rings.
- Skeletons of 4 fused rings. structure differs by the types of functional groups that are attached to the carbon skeleton.
- cholestrol provides physical stabilityin cells membrane. and is the precursor of other steroids - estrogen, testosterone.
Proteins are composed of ___
Joined through ___ Bonds.
There are ___ (amount of subunits)
Peptide bond (dehydration reaction).
|List and briefly describe the 6 functions of proteins.||
1) Support - Keratin. Lends support to ligaments, tendons, and skins. (structural proteins)
2) Enzymes - Bring reactants together to speed up chemical reactions. Specific for one type of reaction and function at body temp.
3) Transport - Hemoglobin. Transports blood. Channel and carrier protines in the plasma membrane allow substances to enter and exit cells.
4) Defense - anitbodies combine with foreign substances, antigens, prevent angigens from destroying cells and upsetting homostatsis
5) Hormones - serve as intercellular messengers that influence metabolism of cells. (Insulin regulates glucose in blood.
6) Motion - Contractile proteins cause cells to move and cause muscles to contact. Causes movement from place to place.
|Shape of proteins. Describe each shape.||
Primary - Its own particules sequence of amino acids. (alphabet).
Secondary - occurs when the polypeptide coils or fold in a particular way. H bonding often holds the secondary structure of a polypeptide in place.
Fibrouse proteins - structural proteins, exist as helices of pleated sheets or pleated sheets that h bond together.
Tetiary - Folding that results in 3d shape. Globular proteins tend to ball up in to rounded shapes. Ionic bods and cavalent bonds all contubute to structue
Quaternary- Sturcute determines biologic function. 2 or more polypeptide chains.
|how can a protein be denatured?||
Hydrogen bonds break when ph drop or temp go to high.
Help new proteins fold into their normal shape. (GLOBULAR)
|What is the difference between DNA and Rna.||
Dna - Found in nucleus,
- double helix
- genetic material
- irects protein synthessi (being template for RNA)
- Sugar - DEOXYRIBOUS.
A double bond with T and G tripel with C
RNA - Single strand
- Carrise out instructions for sugar synthesis
A bonds with U
G with C
|Atp provides energy that can be immedietley used by all body cells. What cause the instability? when is energy released?||
ATP provides energy that can immediately used by all cells. ATP is unstable due to 3 negatively charged phosphate groups.
ENergy is released when:
unstable - loses last phosphate.
Releases during glucose catabolism is captured and stored in bonds. Energy released wgeb a phosphate group is created. Hydrolyzed water is added a split in bond.