New Look, New Frontier, Great Society, and Civil Rights Flashcards

Terms Definitions
John Foster Dulles
United States diplomat who (as Secretary of State) pursued a policy of opposition to the USSR by providing aid to American allies (1888-1959)
Massive Retaliation
The "new look" defense policy of the Eisenhower administration of the 1950's was to threaten "________________" with nuclear weapons in response to any act of aggression by a potential enemy.
MAD
Mutually Assured Destruction
Pactomania
term used to describe a period of treaty making by the United States during the Cold War. During the Presidency of Dwight D. Eisenhower, the United States formed alliances with 42 separate nations
McCarran Act
required all communist organizations to register with the government and to provide lists of members
Sputnik
The world's first space satellite. This meant the Soviet Union had a missile powerful enough to reach the US.
Nikita Khrushchev
ruled the USSR from 1958-1964; lessened government control of soviet citizens; seeked peaceful coexistence with the West instead of confrontation
Suez Crisis
July 26, 1956, Nasser (leader of Egypt) nationalized the Suez Canal, Oct. 29, British, French and Israeli forces attacked Egypt. UN forced British to withdraw; made it clear Britain was no longer a world power
Earl Warren
Chief Justice of Supreme Court in charge of Warren Commission hired by Lyndon B. Johnson
Levittown
In 1947, William Levitt used mass production techniques to build inexpensive homes in surburban New York to help relieve the postwar housing shortage. This became a symbol of the movement to the suburbs in the years after WWII.
1956 Interstate Highway Act
Appropriating $25 billion for the construction of 41,000 miles (66,000 km) of interstate highways over a 20-year period, it was the largest public works project in American history to that point.
Election of 1960
The American presidential election of 1960 which ended Eisenhower's two terms as President and had Nixon as the Republican candidate and Kennedy as the Democratic candidate
Bay of Pigs
In April 1961, a group of Cuban exiles organized and supported by the U.S. Central Intelligence Agency landed on the southern coast of Cuba in an effort to overthrow Fidel Castro. When the invasion ended in disaster, President Kennedy took full responsibility for the failure.
Fidel Castro
Cuban socialist leader who overthrew a dictator in 1959 and established a Marxist socialist state in Cuba (born in 1927)
Berlin Wall
a wall separating East and West Berlin built by East Germany in 1961 to keep citizens from escaping to the West
Vienna Summit
June 1961 just after Bay of Pigs, Kennedy and Khrushchev meet; Khrushchev attempts to push Kennedy around - leading to Berlin Wall and Cuban crisis
Cuban Missile Crisis
the 1962 confrontation bewteen US and the Soviet Union over Soviet missiles in Cuba
U-2 Incident
The incident when an American U-2 spy plane was shot down over the Soviet Union. The U.S. denied the true purpose of the plane at first, but was forced to when the U.S.S.R. produced the living pilot and the largely intact plane to validate their claim of being spied on aerially. The incident worsened East-West relations during the Cold War and was a great embarrassment for the United States.
New Frontier
The campaign program advocated by JFK in the 1960 election. He promised to revitalize the stagnant economy and enact reform legislation in education, health care, and civil rights.
Peace Corps
Fed. program to send volunteers to help developing nations around the world
Test Ban Treaty
Treaty that prohibits nuclear weapon tests or any other nuclear explosion, in the atmosphere, outer space, or underwater.
Ho Chi Minh
Vietnamese communist statesman who fought the Japanese in World War II and the French until 1954 and South vietnam until 1975 (1890-1969)
Dien Bien Phu
the French military base fell after a 56-day siege by Vietnam troops
Tonkin Gulf Incident
1964, US destroyer torpedoes fired and Americans called an air force raid on a North Vietnamese boat
Tonkin Gulf Resolution
Gave the president the authority to "take all necessary measures" to repel any attacks and "to prevent further aggression." The resolution became the legal basis for a war that would last for eight more years.
Tet Offensive
1968; National Liberation Front and North Vietnamese forces launched a huge attack on the Vietnamese New Year (Tet), which was defeated after a month of fighting and many thousands of casualties; major defeat for communism, but Americans reacted sharply, with declining approval of LBJ and more anti-war sentiment
Robert McNamara
secretary of Defense sent to Vietnam on fact-finding mission
Great Society
the name given to the programs of President Lyndon B. Johnson, which elevated the federal government to the most prominent role it would play in the twentieth century. the philosophy of this program was that government should try to solve large social problems like hunger and poverty.
War on Poverty
President Lyndon B. Johnson's program in the 1960's to provide greater social services for the poor and elderly
Election of 1964
LBJ beats Senator Goldwater who voted against the civil rights act and was a conservative republican
Economic Opportunity Act
An economic legislation that was part of the Great Society. It created many social programs to help the poor.
VISTA
Volunteers in Service to America which sent volunteers to help people in poor communties
Rachel Carson
one of the first people to realize the global dangers of pesticide abuse (DDT). Wrote Silent Spring.
Wilderness Act of 1964
a federal law that established the national wilderness preservation system and placed millions of acres of national forest land in the NWPS
Immigration Act of 1965
Established new immigration system that allowed more immigrants into the U.S.
Elementary/Secondary Education Act
funds primary and secondary education
Head Start
program designed to provide children from low income families to go to a daycare like learning center before they are able to start first grade
Medicare Act
1965, established health insurance for the elderly
Thurgood Marshall
American civil rights lawyer, first black justice on the Supreme Court of the United States. Marshall was a tireless advocate for the rights of minorities and the poor.
Brown v. Board of Education
This decision said that separate but equal was ILLEGAL because it violated the 14th Amendment
Little Rock
Little Rock was the site of the forced integration of a public school in 1956. The use of the 101st showed that the federal government was upholding and will continue to uphold the decision of Brown v. Board.
Civil Rights Act of 1964
This act made racial, religious, and sex discrimination by employers illegal and gave the government the power to enforce all laws governing civil rights, including desegregation of schools and public places.
Rosa Parks
United States civil rights leader who refused to give up her seat on a bus to a white man in Montgomery (Alabama) and so triggered the national civil rights movement (born in 1913)
Freedom Rides
designed to test whether southern states would obey Supreme Court rulings for African American rights
Sit-Ins
nonviolent protests in which a person sits and refuses to leave
Martin Luther King, Jr.
Born in Atlanta in 1929. Son of a minister. Attended Morehouse College and recieved a doctor's degree in theology from Boston University. Started the black civil rights movement. Also gave the "I Have A Dream" speech
Selma to Montgomery Marches
hree marches in 1965 that marked the political and emotional peak of the American civil rights movement. Voting rights.
24th Amendment
Amendment to the U.S. Constitution (1964) eliminated the poll tax as a prerequisite to vote in national elections.
Montgomery Bus Boycott
boycott of segregated buses
Voting Rights Acts
increased opportunities to register and allowed attorney general to prevent state interference in the voting process
SCLC
Southern Christian Leadership Conference, churches link together to inform blacks about changes in the Civil Rights Movement, led by MLK Jr., was a success
Malcolm X
militant civil rights leader (1925-1965)
Black Nationalism
a belief in the separate identity and racial unity of the African American community
Black Power
the belief that blacks should fight back if attacked. it urged blacks to achieve economic independence by starting and supporting their own business.
SDS
a student organization that organized a march on Washington D.C.; Students for a Democratic Society
SNCC
Student Non-Violent Coordinating Committee, college kids participate in Civil Rights, stage sit-ins and such
MLK assassination
assassinated in Memphis, Tennessee in 1968 sparked riots
Cesar Chavez
United States labor leader who organized farm workers (born 1927)
Hippies
a youth subculture (mostly from the middle class) originating in San Francisco in the 1960s
Sexual Revolution
participants in the counterculture demanded more lifestyle freedom; their new views of sexual conduct, which rejected many traditional behavioral restrictions, were lableled this
Betty Friedan
United States feminist who founded a national organization for women (born in 1921)
NOW
National Organization of Women, 1966, Betty Friedan first president, wanted Equal Employment Opportunity Commission (EEOC) enforce its legal mandate to end sex discrimination
Affirmative Action
a policy designed to redress past discrimination against women and minority groups through measures to improve their economic and educational opportunities
Warren Commission
Commission made by LBJ after killing of John F. Kennedy. (Point is to investigate if someone paid for the assasination of Kennedy.) Conclusion is that Oswald killed Kennedy on his own. Commissioner is Chief Justice Warren.
Medicaid Act
1965, established health insurance for the poor
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