24: The Building of European Supremacy: Society and Politics to World War I Flashcards

Terms Definitions
Social Disabilities of Women of the Nineteenth Century
=> Property - married woman's property was her husband's property, limited ability to work, save, and move from one location to another
=> Law - reflected Napoleonic Code values and those of Roman law, seperate social spheres, laws supported male supremacy; divorce rare, illegal in France, man had to prove wife committed adultry in order to get divorce, wife had to prove adultry and another wrong act; children were property of their father, dads determined who daughters married, could give children away, contraception and abortion outlawed, introduction of condom, laws concerning rape favored men
=> Education - more men literate than women, secondary school open only to men, not all colleges barred women but most women didn't know enough to pass entry exams, women came to Italy and Switzerland (Zulric) to get medical degrees, allowed women to be students and faculty
Work Force for Women
-decline in textile jobs, wife not working sign of husband's wealth, expected to withdraw from workforce after marriage or first child, took house more jobs available, bureaucratic jobs open to women, usually single women or young wives, jobs
-women involved in low skill labor, economically vounerable, very large social group of women that have no safety net, income neccesary
-prostitution - last economic consequence, thrived in large areas, legal but not accepted, prostitutes could only work in red light districts, most of them women who had moved to cities from country
Middle Class Women - Cult of Domesticity
-Victorian England - smaller family size because kids were economic burdon, sexual repression, sex important part of marriage, increase in use of contraception, closer family bonds
-women's expectation to keep house as safe heven for husband, freetime of wife symbol of wealth, wife in charge of education of children
-wife spent income, overseen by husband
-women expected to be dutiful mother, daughter, and wife
-women expected to work in charity, often connected to church, created poor youth clubs, protect poor young women, societies for visiting the poor, education of children, social workers for church, government, and private charities
Moderate Feminism
-conservative and radical feminists didn't always agree on goals, some women against feminism
-wanted political equality in law, right to property, right to children
-Milicent Fawcett - led National Union of Women's Suffrage Societies, believed being respectful and responsible in political activity would get them right to vote, silent protests
Radical Feminism
-Emmeline Pankhurst with daughters Christabel and Sylvia founded Women's Social and Political Union, attempted respectful methods to achieve goals, methods failed due to small numbers, turned to arson, breaking windows, and sabotage of postal boxes
-followers called suffragettes, marched en masse on Parliament, many members including Pankhursts imprisoned, refused to eat, force fed
Feminism in Norway
earliest country to give women the right to vote (1907)
Feminism in France
-taken on by conservative upper class and catholic church
-not willing to use violence
-bill started to give women the right to vote, stopped in senate
Feminism in Germany
-feminism movement didn't ask for the right to vote, Germany had male suffrage and autocracy
-helped poor, orphans, and other social causes
Feminism and WWI
-most western nations gave women the right to vote due to nationalistic actions (ex: liberty bonds, women taking mens' place in factory, victory gardens)
-German women given teh right to vote when the kaiser fell
-Russian women given representation after tsar falls
Paris Redesign under Napoleon III
Reasons:
1) Napoleon wanted to avoid revolution, make wider boulevards so that baracades couldn't be built
2) supply jobs, commercial reasons,
3) suburbs - created business districts, residental housing seperate from poor, tenament buildings, areas for middle and lower class, trams and trains, further seperation of nuclear family
4) urban sanitation - beginning of immunizations (small pox), end of chlorea, miasma, using concrete to build underground sewers and channels to pipe sewage to the river, embankments - concrete channels to pipe good water into cities and bad water out
Migration
-migration towards cities and to other countries (North and South America, Australia)
-population stabilization
-emancipation of peasants lessened authority of landlords and made legal movements and migration easier
Second Industrial Revolution
-Henry Bessemer invented new process for manufactoring steel cheaply in large quantities, Germany leading steel producer
-Solway process of alkali production replaced old Leblanc process, allowed recovery of more chemical by-products, permitted increased production of sulfuric acid and laundry soap
-application of electric energy to production, made locations of factories more flexible and factory construction more efficient, homes streetcars and subway system electrified
-internal combustion engine invented in 1886, Gottlieb Daimler invented automobile
-first significant demand for oil
Economic Difficulties
-bad weather, foreign competition - lowered consumer food price, put drag on economy
-several large banks failed in 1873, rate of capital investment slowed
-some industries entered two-decade-long depresion
-prices, wages and profits fell, bad working conditions, unemployment, strikes, labor unrest, growth of trade unions and socialist political parties
-expansion of consumer demand brought economy out of stagnation
-new forms of retailing and marketing - department stores, chain stores, packaging techniques, mail-order catalogs, advertising
Middle Class
-bourgeois ceased to be revolutionary group to protect their possessions against the demands of socialist and working class groups
-high middle class - most prosperous, those who were owners and managers of great businesses and banks, W.H. Smith, Krupp family, very few
-next level comfortable small entrepreneurs and professional people, shopkeepers, school teachers, librarians
-petit bourgeois - lower middle class, "white-collar workers", secretaries, retail clerks, low level bureaucrats in business and government
-tensions and social anxieties between teh different middle class groups
Democratization
all classes have more disposable income and free time, quick transportation, able to have more leisure time
Great Britain - Fabianism
-important members Webbs, H.G. Wells, Shaw
-gas and water socialists, willing to work within the current system to achieve change, local level
-goal to look out for lower class as a whole
First International
- meeting of leftists (anarchists, socialists, Polish radicals), connect people of like minds, wanted to reform the conditions of labor through current economics and policies, suppressed, moved to U.S., dissolves
Second International
- new effort to unify varius international socialist parties and trade unions, more Marxist, condemned "opportunism" in France
France - Opportunism
-unions didn't get involved when legislature protected lower class
-opportunism - takes advantage of opportunities
Juares
socialist, believed in cooperation with middle class Radical ministries to ensure enactment of needed social legislation for socialists, able to get socialist into French cabinet
Guesde
socialist, opposed supporting bourgeois cabinet that they would eventually overthrow, supported Second International
Socialism in Germany
-Socialist Democratic Party (SPD) - Marxist socialism, polled more and more elections to the Reichstag
-Bismark anti-socialist, made anything socialist illegal
-working groups asked for insurance, Bismark supplied insurance and charged tax to industries and employers
-William II removes Bismark from office, gives unions back their rights
Erfurt Program
-Bebel and Klautsky, Marxism, declared immanent doom of capitalism and necessary and necessity of social ownership by means of production
Klautsky
believed socialist revolution to be inevitabe and tha immediat task was to improve lives of workers
Bernstein
opposes Klautsky and Marxism, believed that social reform was achieved through democratic institutions
Lenon
-socialist, plan for small elite revolutionary force to overthrow the government, believed that revolution should support both working class and peasants
-radical, exiled from Russia, ended up in Switzerland
Social Revolutionary Party
-Russia, populists, supported reform of agricultural communities, create communes
Social Democratic Party
Russia, led by Plekhanov, idealized Marxist revoluution, exiled, went to Switzerland, Lenon one of his students
Constitutional Democrats (Cadets)
Russia, liberals, stood for parliamentary government, ministries responsible to parliament, civil liberties, laissez faire
Nicholas II
-calls for a constitution written by himself, representative branch of government dumas
-dumas - elected government, too radical the first tome, dissolved, second still too radical, dissolved, third pliable enough for tsar, continued until WWI
-son has hemophelia, healer Rasputin religious figure, claimed to have magical ability to cure hemophelis, had influence over tsar and his wife
Sergai Witte
-appointed by William II, industrialist, wanted to industrialize Russia, expansion of coal and iron mines, high taxes and tariffs, pur Russia on Gold Standard, financed by France
-railway increased x2, coal output by x3, raw iron by x5, steel production by x10
Kulak
wealthy peasant farmers of Russia, troublemakers during Stalin's time
Jewish Emancipation
-Hababurg Empire: Joseph II issued decree that placed Jews in his empire under nearly equal laws to Christians, 1782, Austria-Hungary gave Jews full citizen rightsin 1867
-France: National Assembly recognized Jews as French citizens in 1789
-Jews became generally equal with Christains in Germany and Italy during Napoleonic wars
-Jews in Western Europe and lesser in Eastern Europe began to gain rights towards citizenship
-Russia and Poland - traditional prejudice, undermined Jewish comunity life, limited publication of Jewish books, restricted their living areas, required them to have international passport, banned them from many forms of state service, excluded from higher education
-pogroms - organized riots against Jewish neighborhoods and villages
-Jews attained full citizenship in Germany, Italy, Low Countries, and Scandanavia
-Jews able to participate in aspects of community previously blocked for them, migrated to western European countries and U.S.
-continued anti-semitism attitude (no longer through government), organized anti-semetism in Germany in 1880's
-rise of Zionism
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