|Major Features of the Old Regime||
1.Aristocratic elites possessing a wide variety of inherited legal privileges.
2.Established churches intimately related to the state and the aristocracy.
3.An urban labor force usually organized into guilds.
4.A rural peasantry subject to high taxes and feudal dues.
a.People focused on the past more than the future due to a desire to restore rights they felt had been lost in recent times.
b.Hierarchy and Privilege:
i.Traditional hierarchy was very much intact.
ii.Individual rights did not exist, your rights were based on your community and they could vary.
a.Made up only 5% of European population.
b.They enjoyed privilege well out of relevance to this %.
a.Based on birth, and legal rights
i.400 noble families
ii.Eldest male served in House of Lords
iii.Owned tremendous amount of land.
iv.Invested in commerce.
v.Had to pay taxes.
vi.Controlled society and politics through sheer power and wealth.
vii.Were the most socially responsible.
i.Two types of nobles:
01."of the Sword" mean they earned their titles through military service.
02."of the Robe" means inherited, serving in the bureaucracy or buying them.
03.400,000 nobles in all.
ii.The importance of the royal court:
01.Those nobles that were in favor with the king reaped rich rewards and held powerful political offices.
02.Those not in favor were (the provincial nobility) were often no better off than rich peasants.
02.Exclusive hunting and fishing rights on their land.
03.Could collect feudal dues from peasants on their land.
|"of the Swords" nobles||
Nobles in France who trace back their heritage very far back and/or people who had earned their title from brave military service
|"of the Robe" Nobles||
Nobles in France who got a peice of paper saying that they were a noble
i.Had life and death authority over their serfs until the late 18th century.
ii.Entirely exempt from taxes.
iii.Still relatively poor.
|Austria and Hungary Nobility||
i.Nobles had huge judicial powers over their peasants.
ii.The wealthiest owned much of the land.
i.Service in the military and bureaucracy made the power of the Junkers grow.
ii.Had extensive judicial power over serfs and peasants.
i.Powerful boyar class did not solidify until the 18th century with the introduction of Peter the Greats Table of Ranks.
ii.Were forced into compulsory service in the government, still the most powerful were exempt.
iii.Won rights from Catherine the Great:
02.Greater power over the serfs.
Nobles wanted a way to stop the encroaching power of the monarchs.
|Aristocratic Means to resurgences||
ii.Make appointments to government and military positions tied to nobility.
iii.Restore long forgotten aristocratic rights and powers (i.e. feudal taxes) to strengthen themselves economically.
iv.Use aristocratically controlled institutions to check the power of the monarchies:
01.Ex: Parliament, Parlements, Provincial Diets (HRE)
|Peasants and Serfs||
Were economically and socially dependent on the aristocracy, which left them vulnerable to exploitation.
i.Were the most liberated, but still the power rested with the landed nobility who controlled the courts and political offices.
i.Had to pay feudal dues to landowners and perform corvée (forced labor) a certain amount of days per year.
ii.Had to rent mill and oven time.
i.Controlled by the Junkers (they were pawns)
i.Had to provide robot (free service) in return for use of noble's lands.
i.Still practice serfdom:
01.Serfs had no recourse against abusive owners who ultimate authority over them.
|Ottoman Empire Peasants||
i.Labor was scarce so peasants enjoyed relative freedom.
ii.When the Ottomans grew weak, landlords gained power by offering protection from bandits.
i.A huge serf/peasant revolt in Russia.
01.Revolt scared the Romanov's so badly that any thought of easing of the serfs was gone for centuries.
|English Game Laws||
i.Stated that only landed aristocracy could hunt their lands.
ii.This made peasants mad because many needed the food.
1.For food and for profit soon began.
iii.As communal land disappeared peasants grew more resentful.
iv.Finally the laws were repealed and lords could allow others to hunt their lands.
|Household in Northwestern Europe||
a.Based around the nuclear family.
b.Children would leave home in their teens to most likely become servants.
i.Servants in this context was not an inferiority issue rather a chance to learn a skill or make money and receive room and board.
|Marriage in Northwestern Europe||
i.Usually later in marriage (late twenties).
ii.Premarital sex was present but illegitimate births were rare.
|Household in Eastern Europe||
a.Based on an extended multigenerational family.
b.Marriage occurred at a younger age.
i.Lords often wanted as many serfs as possible so encouraged large families and early marriages.
|Family Economy Concept||
a.The family was the basic unit of production and consumption
|How the Family Economy Concept Worked||
a.Everyone in the household worked, and the money they earned went to the family not an individual.
i.Rural: Farming with women sometimes running the farm when the man was away.
ii.Urban: Women ran the business as the men did the work.
|Dissolution of the household in the West||
i.Often occurred with the death of the father, the main skilled laborer.
ii.Widows would seek to remarry quickly; if they were older the household often dissolved.
iii.The children if too young may go into an orphanage and the mother to the streets and/or charity.
iv.The personal, emotional, and economic vulnerability of the family in western Europe sometimes led to outright crime.
|Dissolution of the household in the East||
The concept of serfdom helped here because of villages and extended families living under the same roof.
|Women in the Family Economy||
a.Women played a vital role in the rural and urban family economy.
i.Rural: A gopher of sorts and a homemaker.
ii.Urban: Working in the shop with her husband.
b.Therefore, it was not uncommon to limit the amount of children (especially in the urban setting) and use wet nurses so the women could continue her duties.
i.Women had far less education and respect than men and the view was that it was the end of the world if the husband died.
ii.Upcoming mechanism would change the role of women
|Children in the Family Economy||
a.The fortunate children began to serve the family around the age of seven, and then moved out to be servants (urban).
|Childern as a "Burden"||
i.Would incapacitate or kill the mother.
ii.Often turned over to wet nurses so the mother could continue in the family economy.
iii.Some infanticide, but mostly abandonment.
01.Took "found" children in.
02.Had a massive death rate.
- Took in "Found" children
- Had a massive death rate
|Third Agricultural Revolution||
1.European farming was uncertain and unsettling.
a.Bad harvests could equal death, inflation, recession.
2.Still the majority of peasants tilled their fields in a traditional style worrying that any change could tilt the precarious balance.
3.The push for change came from landlords and commercial farming ventures.
|Origins of the Third Agricultural Revolution||
1.In the 16th and 17th centuries farmers in the Netherlands really started the trend of improving agriculture.
2.Dutch were hired all over Europe to share their techniques.
b.Different forms of fodder meant to produce more animal waste.
i.Turnips and Clover
a.Planted wheat by drill
a.Instituted crop rotation so no field was left fallow
a.Pushed for advances in animal husbandry to produce healthier animals.
|Results of Animal Husbandry||
a.Animals were healthier and had a large supply of fodder.
b.Animals produced more manure, which meant better fertilized fields.
c.Higher crop yields for humans.
|The Enclosure Method: (England) Origins||
The Open Field Style
a.Originally decisions about field usage and crops were made on a communal basis and were relatively unbinding.
b.Livestock grazed on communal land so the farmer could use his private land to plant crops for humans.
c.This led to disjointed farming, but favored the poor farmer.
|Enclosing the Land||
Large landowners built fences or wall around the land and started to dictate what would be grown on their fields.
|Effects of the Enclosure Movement||
a.Threw the peasants life into turmoil.
b.Allowed for more advances to take place quicker.
c.Introduced an entrepreneurial attitude toward farming and the beginning of large scale commercial farming.
i.Landlords became less concerned about the welfare of their peasants and more worried about profit.
ii.This left peasants to the mercy of the market and continued their feeling of uncertain change.
|Debate over the Enclosure Movement||
a.Some say it led to peasants moving to the cities and supplying the human resources for the Industrial Revolution.
b.Some say it was what it was...strictly an agrarian movement.
|Agriculture Outside of England||
1.France and some Western German states embraced most of the changes developed in England.
a.With landlords already in charge of the land, there was little push for change.
b.Eastern landlords sought to squeeze more production from the workers vs. the land.
Europe experienced large scale population growth during the 18th century in rural and urban settings.
|Reasons for Population Explosion||
1.Decline in death rate:
a.Fewer large scale wars.
c.Improvements in hygiene and sanitation.
a.Easily grown and plentiful gave even the poorest a staple food.
|Effects of the Population||
1.Made farming very profitable.
a.Pushed innovations in farming.
a.More population than the rural setting could handle, so they migrated to towns.
b.This resulted in a new pool of labor for the upcoming Industrial Revolution.
c.Social Ramifications of Migration:
i.Increased the amount of citizens that may become socially discontent due to lack of jobs and lack of identity.
3.Demand for goods increased:
a.New methods of production would have to be created to meet these demands.
|Putting Out System||
i.Many urban textile dealers would take wool or cotton to the peasants.
ii.Many textiles were made in rural areas. Farmers would weave in the winter period.
iii.By the mid-18th century production could not meet demand.
|Early Textile Machines||
a.The Spinning Jenny:
i.Increased the amount of spun material.
b.The Water Frame:
i.Allowed pure cotton thread to be created vs. the current cotton mixed with linen.
ii.This machine was water powered and took the textile industry out of the cottage.
|The Spinning Jenny||
- Machine that increased the amount of spun material
|The Water Frame||
- Allowed for pure cotten thread to be created versus the current cotten mixed with linen
- This machine was water powered and took the textile industry out of the cottage
|The Steam Engine||
1.Why was it the single most important invention for the Industrial Revolution?
a.Provided the first source of constant power.
a.Many men aided in the creation of the Steam Engine.
b.James Watt was the one who perfected the machine.
- Perfector of the Steam Engine
|Iron Production Early Problems||
a.Use of charcoal to melt the iron down.
b.Until the steam engine inconsistent blast achieved in the furnace.
c.Iron was not popular because it was relatively weak.
|Solution to Iron Production Early Problems||
a.Use of coke (derived from coal) and the steam engine made making iron easier thus the price dropped.
- Made a purer (stronger) iron
- Created a roller to form still molten iron into shapes.
|Changing Role of Women Agriculture||
a.New machinery replaced women in many roles they had played on the farm.
b.Commercialization of farming saw landlords employing more men which replaced women.
c.Population boom saw many more men looking for jobs on farms.
|Changing Role of Women Textiles||
a.Machines replaced women here, especially when the industry went outside the home.
|Summary of the New Position of Women||
a.Men and women slowly became very separated in the work places.
b.Women's work became associated with the home.
c.Women thus did not see or use the new technologies.
d.Women became only a support to the males income (a sizable change in the family economy).
|Summary of the Early Industrial Revolution||
1.The West had the advantage.
2.Industrialization overcame the economy of scarcity that Europe had worked under for centuries.
3.Industrialization increased the standard of living in Europe.
4.Humans took control of nature during this time.
5.Women's roles were greatly reduced.
6.Longevity of Change:
a.Still was a slow change stretching throughout the better half of a century.
|Urban Class System Basics||
a.Division was very visible in cities, with many vices in people's faces.
b.Rural areas also had poverty also, but it was relatively hidden.
|Upper Class in Urban System||
a.Made up of nobles and very rich citizens.
b.Usually controlled the city politically:
i.Through old royal charters
ii.Just controlling the elections.
|Middle Class in Urban System||
a.Larger amorphous group, but the most active.
b.Were economically aggressive and hard working.
c.Were usually in favor of reform, change and economic growth.
d.The middle class pushed the consumer revolution in the west.
e.Rivalry with Nobility:
i.MC wanted expanded rights and rewards for their hard work.
ii.Nobles felt that this encroachment was directed at them and set up road blocks to the MC aspirations.
|Artisans in the Urban System||
a.These were the lowest workers, the hourly employee.
b.They were by nature conservatives fearing the loss of the little rights they have.
c.Most numerous of the urban population.
i.Not as powerful as in medieval times, still they held considerable sway.
ii.Were conservative organizations that fought large scale change or innovation.
iii.Sought to protect their members socially, economically, and socially.
|Physical Outlay of a City||
a.Town center was usually the townhouses of the powerful.
b.Poor would bunched along rivers usually near where they worked.
c.This middle class occupied the middle ground.
d.This layout underlined the division in the urban society.
a.Often in reaction to an "unjust" price for goods, especially bread.
b.Rioters would confiscate food, sell it at a "just" price and give the money back to the victim.
c.This shows that these riots were a social norm, not an uncontrolled screaming mob.
a.Artisans felt that they had been shut out of the political process so the rioted.
b.Sometimes urged by certain institutions (i.e. the Church, Parlements in France).
|Summary of Riots||
a.These riots were usually against property and not meant to cause death.
b.Still, this would become a powerful political outlet for the disenfranchised.
|Everyday Life of a Jew||
a.Lived a life of uncertainty because they were perceived as an alien group no matter how long they had lived in a country.
b.Their rights and livelihood were precarious at best, resting on the whims of leaders and the mood of the majority.
a.In all countries except the Netherlands and England, Jews lived in Ghettos.
b.Many of these ghettos were nearly autonomous or under incredibly strict control.
i.Close to emperors and kings b/c of money lending ability.
ii.These Jews often married among themselves and looked down on other Jews.
b.Most Jews lived in poverty, even the money lenders.
|Persecution of Jews||
a.Was based on religion, not ethnicity.
b.Characteristics of persecution:
i.Property could be confiscated.
ii.Lived separately from other citizens.
iii.Regarded religiously and socially inferior.