Final Aging in A Changing Society Flashcards

older people
Terms Definitions
Active euthanasia
Also known as assisted suicide; occurs when a physician, close friend, or relative helps an ill or disabled person terminate his or her life.
Activities of daily living (ADLs)
Measure of need for help with basic functions such as eating, bathing, dressing, getting to and from the bathroom, getting in and out of bed, and walking.
Bloc voting
Voting as a group on the basis of some characteristic such as age.
A payment system that provides a flat monthly fee for each person in the system regardless of what services are performed.
Caregiver burden
Difficulty in managing the specific tasks to be performed in caring for the frail elderly.
Caregiver stress
The subjective appraisal of the strain on the caregiver.
Compression of morbidity thesis
The theory that improvements in health care and prevention will compress the years that an individual will be disabled into the last few years of the life span.
Convergence theory
A theory of aging that views old age as a great leveler, which reduces inequality that was evident at earlier stages of the life course.
Cumulative advantage/disadvantage
A theory that people who begin life with greater resources continue to have opportunities to accumulate more of them, while those who begin with few resources fall further behind.
Defined benefit (DB)
A pension plan in which the benefit level is based on years of service and prior earnings; a specified amount that is guaranteed when a worker reaches a given age.
Defined contribution (DC)
A pension benefit based on the amount that has accumulated in the account, including contributions plus any gains or losses from investments, expenses, or forfeitures; a savings
account with certain tax advantages.
Diagnostic-related grouping (DRG)
A cost-control measure in Medicare that sets the reimbursement rate in advance for a patient admitted to a hospital with a particular diagnosis.
Disability Insurance
A monthly benefit provided through the Social Security system for disabled workers younger than age 65 who have worked 10 years and are incapable of "substantial gainful activity."
Benefits governed by formulas set in law and not subject to annual appropriations by Congress; people who meet the eligibility criteria automatically receive the benefits.
Epidemiological transition
Change in the leading causes of death from infectious diseases to chronic diseases.
The act of killing or permitting the death of a hopelessly sick or injured individual in a painless way as an act of mercy.
Frail elderly
Older people who depend on others for carrying out their daily activities; they show some mental or physical deterioration and need care from family members.
Functional status
A measure of the extent to which a chronic health problem, either physical or mental, produces a behavioral change in a person's capacity to perform the necessary tasks for daily living so that the help of another person is required.
Gray lobby
The organizations that represent the interests of the aged.
Health lifestyle
A pattern of behaviors likely to affect health, based on choices and options that are available to people according to their life situations.
Health maintenance organization (HMO)
Organization that provides health care based on prepaid group insurance. Patients pay a fixed yearly fee in exchange for a full range of health care services, including hospital care as well as doctor's services.
A place where the terminally ill are allowed to die easily and at peace; an alternative to the medical, scientific model of dying; central component of philosophy is pain management.
Individual Retirement Account (IRA)
A way of using the tax code to encourage retirement savings; deposits not subject to taxes on the income or earnings until time of distribution (withdrawal).
Instrumental activities of daily living (IADLs)
Measure of need for help with such activities as keeping track of money, doing light housework, taking medicine, and running errands.
Living will
Document in which an individual can specify his or her wishes for treatment in advance in case he or she should become terminally ill.
Long-term care
The range of services and supportive living arrangements that help the elderly and disabled live independently; also refers to institutional care for those who need more extensive help.
Means test
Eligibility requirement for social benefits that is usually set quite low and accompanied by social stigma; typically, only the very poor are able to qualify for benefits.
A federal/state program of health insurance for the poor; pays a large share of nursing home costs.
A national health insurance program for all people 65 or older who are eligible for Social Security; granted as an automatic right to all qualified workers and their spouses.
Medigap policies
Insurance policies that pay for health care expenses not covered by Medicare.
Nursing home
An institutional setting where long-term care to the frail and disabled elderly is provided.
Passive euthanasia
Involves withholding or withdrawing medical treatment for the hopelessly ill.
Pension Benefit Guaranty Corporation (PBGC)
The federal agency that assumes responsibility for paying the promised pension benefits owed by firms if a terminated pension plan has insufficient funds to meet its obligations to the workers.
Primary caregiver
Person who takes basic responsibility for caring for the elderly; tends to be a daughter.
The reduction of government responsibility and an increase in the responsibility of individuals for their own welfare; the taking over of government functions by the private sector.
Prospective voting
Voting for a candidate on the basis of promises made during a campaign.
Retrospective voting
The withholding of votes from a candidate on the basis of a judgment of past performance.
Role reversal
Reversal of parent-child roles, with the child becoming the decision maker.
Social insurance
A type of social benefit designed to provide economic security over the life course and to prevent people from falling into destitution; people contribute to a common pool and share risks; contributors earn the right to benefits.
Social movements
Collectivities of people organized to promote or resist change, typically operating outside the political mainstream.
Social Security
Old-age insurance; public pension system for retired workers who have made payroll tax contributions; also includes benefits for the disabled, widows, and spouses.
Stages of dying
Elizabeth Kubler-Ross's five stages include denial, anger, bargaining, depression, and acceptance.
Supplemental Security Income (SSI)
A federal means-tested social assistance program for the aged, blind, and disabled poor.
Survivor's benefit
A Social Security benefit payable to the widow or widower of a deceased worker, equal to 100 percent of the worker's benefit.
Vesting rules
These specify a minimum number of years a worker is required to be employed by a firm to be eligible for a pension.
See Figure 11-1 in Quadagno. According to the National Center for Health Statistics, among people 65 and older, the most common chronic condition for both men and women is
They will not get hypertension
Many older people who "power walk" are likely to do so in shopping malls. There are several advantages of exercise like this. Which of the following is NOT one of the advantages
enjoyed by elderly people who exercise regularly?
a. They are likely to be more fit.
b. They are more likely to keep their weight under control.
c. They will not get hypertension.
d. They have fewer backaches and joint problems.
Income level is relatively fixed.
Studies have consistently found a link between socioeconomic status and health. Socioeconomic status consists of education, occupation, and income. There are several problems with these three components. Which of the following is NOT true of these SES indicators?
a. "Occupation" does not include the unemployed.
b. Income level is relatively fixed.
c. Educational attainment is relatively fixed.
d. As people age, there is a lower chance of their being in the labor force.
Which of the following ethnic groups is least likely to have health insurance?
a. African Americans
b. Asian Americans
c. Hispanics/Latinos
d. Native Americans
achieve efficiency and control cost
The primary purpose of health maintenance organizations or managed care is to
a. achieve efficiency and control cost.
b. provide better diagnosis of illness.
c. achieve better communication between doctor and patient and reduce cost.
d. reduce the cost of health care to consumers.
household chores.
There is a gender difference in the division of labor among caregivers. Daughters are more likely to provide all of the following EXCEPT
a. household chores.
b. feeding.
c. dressing.
d. bathing.
Abuse of the elderly by caregivers is most likely to involve
a. physical abuse.
b. neglect.
c. financial abuse.
d. emotional abuse.
nonprofit organizations
Research has shown that the highest quality of care is provided in homes operated by
a. profit-making companies.
b. nonprofit organizations.
c. small "mom-and-pop" teams.
d. educational organizations.
Policies do not cover home care for people in their 90s
Long-term care insurance is one option to pay for home care services. There are several problems with private insurance. Which of the following is NOT one of these problems?
a. Policies do not cover home care for people in their 90s.
b. Premiums are costly because most people wait until they are in their 70s and 80s to
purchase insurance.
c. People with health problems are turned down by private insurers.
d. A high proportion of policyholders permit their policies to lapse.
neither a nor b
Delirium is similar to dementia in that
a. both delirium and dementia are characterized by acute onset.
b. both delirium and dementia are irreversible.
c. both a and b
d. neither a nor b
The dead are instilled with special powers and considered potentially harmful in many different _____ societies.
a. agrarian
b. eastern
c. Native American
d. preliterate
low income
Surveys have indicated public opinion for physician-assisted suicide for mentally competent patients. Those most likely to favor legalizing assisted suicide were Caucasian males.
Which of the following is NOT characteristic of the white males favoring legalization?
a. not very religious
b. strained family relationships
c. failing health
d. low income
loss of physical attractiveness
Rates of suicide increase with age. Which of the following is NOT a reason for increased risk of suicide in older people?
a. social isolation
b. financial hardship
c. loss of physical attractiveness
d. chronic illness and pain
According to the National Hospice and Palliative Care Organization, the main source of payment support for hospice care in 2000 (see Table 13-1 in Quadagno) was
a. private insurance.
b. private pay.
c. charitable donations.
d. Medicare.
75 percent.
The number of adult children who have lost both parents by age 62 is
the number of children providing economic support.
All of the following are factors which have improved the economic status of the aged EXCEPT
a. marital status.
b. diverse sources of income.
c. private pensions that have tripled in income.
d. the number of children providing economic support.
low birth rates
The elderly today benefited from the rising tide of prosperity in the post-World War II era. Which of the following is NOT related to this prosperity?
a. high marriage rates
b. stable employment histories
c. stable low divorce rates
d. low birth rates
Social Security
_____ is the most successful program of the U.S. welfare state.
a. Social Security
b. Medicare
c. Medicaid
d. Disability insurance
be administered through the tax system instead of a welfare bureaucracy.
There is a recommendation to use a means test to qualify for Social Security benefits. This affluence test would differ from the traditional social assistance approach in that it would
a. require proof of financial eligibility for all recipients and permit benefits only to those
with certain incomes.
b. reduce benefits only to higher income individuals.
c. be administered through the tax system instead of a welfare bureaucracy.
d. be administered through the state's tax system.
Young workers today are extremely realistic about what they will need to fund a comfortable lifestyle in retirement.
Which of the following statements is NOT true?
a. The primary policy tools of government are the power to tax and the power to spend.
b. In the last 40 years, there has been a vast improvement in the economic position of the
c. Because so much of the net worth of older people is housing wealth, some retirees
have started using their home equity to pay for their retirement.
d. Young workers today are extremely realistic about what they will need to fund a
comfortable lifestyle in retirement.
Older adults have numerous sources of income. The largest source of ethnic/racial disparity in income is from
a. pensions.
b. savings.
c. assets.
d. antiques.
racial discrimination in housing
African Americans and Hispanics/Latinos have lower rates of home ownership due to
a. preference for remaining in a specific community.
b. racial discrimination in housing.
c. intergenerational housing arrangements.
d. frequent moves from city to city.
work history
Inequality in old age is not a random pattern but a consistent one. A person's _____ is a major factor in her/his income security in old age
a. assets
b. inheritance
c. work history
d. continuing availability for contingent work
Women have limited employment mobility.
There are several factors that reduce women's eligibility for pensions. Which of the following is NOT one of these factors?
a. Women generally work in smaller, non-unionized firms.
b. One-fourth of American women work in retail and service industries.
c. Women have interrupted work histories.
d. Women have limited employment mobility.
All state and local government workers' pension plans are regulated by the Retirement Equity Act of 1984
Which of the following statements is FALSE?
a. Dual entitlement under Social Security refers to men and women who have worked
outside the home and are eligible for benefits from that work, as well as for benefits as a spouse.
b. One's access to a pension is determined by one's employment.
c. All state and local government workers' pension plans are regulated by the Retirement Equity Act of 1984.
d. Marriage has a positive effect on a woman's finances in old age.
The consistent voting pattern among the elderly observed in the United States DOES NOT hold true for other countries like Canada, Germany, and the Netherlands.
Which of the following statements related to voting patterns is NOT true?
a. Older Americans constitute roughly 12 percent of the population, yet they represent
over 20 percent of those who actually vote.
b. Voting patterns represent the difficulty of separating age, period, and cohort effects.
c. The consistent voting pattern among the elderly observed in the United States DOES
NOT hold true for other countries like Canada, Germany, and the Netherlands.
d. The consistent voting pattern among the elderly observed in the United States also
holds true for countries like Canada, Germany, and the Netherlands.
they are so diverse in income, social class, education, and health.
Older people do not engage in bloc voting because
a. of intergenerational solidarity.
b. they may not be registered to vote.
c. they constitute different cohorts.
d. they are so diverse in income, social class, education, and health.
protecting existing benefits.
The main accomplishment of old age interest groups has been that of
a. lobbying for benefits.
b. winning new benefits.
c. protecting existing benefits.
d. proposing new benefits.
Townsend Movement.
The first social movement to attract primarily older people was the
a. Gray Panthers.
b. Senior Power Movement.
c. Intergenerational Movement.
d. Townsend Movement.
a disproportionate share of the budget is being spent on the elderly, crowding out other social needs.
Critics concerned about an entitlement crisis typically argue that
a. the federal budget is out of control.
b. spending on entitlement programs should cease.
c. a disproportionate share of the budget is being spent on the elderly, crowding out other social needs.
d. entitlement programs will increase.
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