Drugs, Society & Human Behavior, Ch. 1-5 Flashcards

Terms Definitions
most well known opioid agonist
opioid antagonist used to treat heroin addiction (generic name)
altering availability of neurotransmitter in synapse (97)
one of 2 major ways drugs affect neurotransmitter systems ('altering... )
acting directly on receptor (97)
one of 2 major ways drugs affect neurotransmitter systems (acting as agonist by mimicking action of neurotransmitter, or as antagonist by occupying receptor & preventing neurotransmitter from activating it)
mesolimbic dopamine pathway (89)
most prominent neurochemical theory of drug abuse states that in this dopamine pathway (one of 2 major), neurons are stimulated by all rewarding drugs
nigrostriatal dopamine pathway (91)
dopamine pathway (one of 2 major) damaged in Parkinson's
acetylcholine (88-90)
neurotransmitter found in parasympathetic branch in the cerebral cortex
homeostasis (83)
maintenance of an environment of body functions within certain range
blood-brain barrier (86-7)
structure that prevents many drugs from entering the brain
endorphin (92-3)
opiate-like chemical that occurs naturally in human & animal brain (endogenous)
endorphins (role of) (92)
brain chemical similar to morphine that plays a role in pain, but there is not a strong link between it and drug dependence
basal ganglia (92-3)
subcortical brain structures controlling muscle tone; contains striatum, a part of the nigrostriatal dopamine pathway
monoamine theory of mood (98)
proposition that too little activity of MA neurotransmitters can cause depression, & too much can cause mania - supported by the fact that monoamine-enhancing drugs, like amphetamines & cocaine, elevate mood
PET (positron emission tomography) scan (99)
brain imaging technique using radioactively labeled chemicals (injected into bloodstream)
MRI (magnetic resonance imaging) (99)
brain imaging technique using strong magnetic field
functional MRI (100)
MRI in real time
neurons (83)
nerve cells: the primary elements of the nervous system, responsible for analyzing & transmitting information
receptors (84-5)
recognition mechanisms that respond to specific chemical signals - they are stimulated by psychoactive drugs
neurotransmitters (84)
chemical messengers of the brain, stored in vesicles of presynaptic terminals of axons in nerve cells
glia (84-5)
90% of brain cells are these - they produce myelin, the loss of which causes multiple sclerosis
substance classifications (106-8)
SHOP N MD - stimulants, hallucinogens, opioids, psychotherapeutics, nicotine, marijuana, depressants
placebo (109)
an inactive drug
placebo effect (109-10)
non-specific effect, produced by an inactive chemical the user believes is a drug
dose-response curve threshold (110)
low dose, at which an effect is first observed on the response system being monitored
dose-response curve (110)
graph showing the relationship between the dose of a drug & its effect
ataxia (111)
staggering, uncoordinated walking
comatose (111)
unconscious & unable to be aroused
four questions about dosage that must be answered in rational use of drugs (111)
(1) what is the effective dose? (2) what dose will be toxic? (3) what is the safety margin? (difference between effective dose & toxic dose) (4) adverse reactions?
safety margin (113)
difference between effective dose & toxic dose - estimating this is an important part of animal testing
LD50 (112-13)
median lethal dose; dose required to kill 50% of test population. Used to determine acute toxicity, and usually well above the effective dose for 50% of subjects
ED50 (112-13)
median effective dose; dose effective for 50% of test population
TI (112-13)
therapeutic index: LD50/ED50
side effects
unintended effects of a drug that are not relevant to the treatment
potency (113)
amount of a drug that must be given to obtain a particular response
time course (114-15)
administration of a drug & its effect over time
small intestine (re: psychoactive drugs) (116)
organ around which most absorption of psychoactive drugs into the BLOODSTREAM occurs)
deltoid muscle (re psychoactive drugs) (118)
muscle allowing for most rapid absorption of drug, using intramuscular injection
buttock (re psychoactive drugs) (118)
area allowing for least rapid absorption of drug, using intramuscular injection
'skin popping' (118)
slang for subcutaneous injection
deactivation - 2 methods (120-121)
(1) drug is excreted from the body unchanged (2) drug is chemically changed such that it no longer has same effect on body
respiration rate (importance of, in terms of drug interaction) (121)
single most important type of drug interaction for psychoactive drugs; depressants' action on brain stem slow breathing
CYP450 (121)
enzyme family most important in metabolizing drugs; always available in the liver; evolved to eliminate toxic chemicals from plants; their function can be altered by alcohol & barbiturates
specific drug effects (110)
effects of a drug that depend on the presence of the chemical at certain concentrations
metabolite (121)
product of enzyme action on a drug
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