Praxis II (0041/0049) Reading and Literature Flashcards

Terms Definitions
biography
a written account of a person's life that focuses on the character and career of the subject
drama
a literary work written in a dialogue to be performed before an audience by actors on a stage
epic poem
a long narrative poem in a lofty style, set in a remote time and place, and dealing with heroic characters and deeds important in legends and history of a nation or race
essay
a composition on a particular theme or topic
historical
sub-genre of fiction that often portrays fictional accounts or dramatization of historical figures or events
lyric
a short personal poem expressing the poets emotions and thoughts rather than telling a story
novel
a lengthy, fictional narrative in prose dealing with characters, incidents, and settings that imitate those found in life
prose poem
a short composition printed in prose paragraphs, yet containing the striking imagery, calculate rhythmic effects, and other devices of poetry
bildungsroman
a German word that, translated literally, means "development novel;" applied to a novel that traces early education of its hero from youth to experience
comedy
any literary work that aims to amuse by dealing with humorous, familiar situations involving ordinary people speaking everyday language
gothic
barbaric; from the middle ages; in novel form, a type that's characterized by mystery, horror, and the supernatural, often with haunted castles, secret passages, grisly visions, all of the paraphernalia of the tale of terror
pastoral
a poem having to do with shepards and rural life
romance
an extended work of fiction that deals with adventure, extravagant characters, strange or exotic places, mysterious or supernatural incidents, heroic or marvelous achievements, or passionate love
satire
a term used to describe any form of literature that blends ironic humor and wit with criticism for the purpose of ridiculing folly, vice, stupidity-the whole range of human foibles and frailties--in individuals and institutions
tragedy
broadly a serious work of fiction, especially a drama, that presents the downfall of its protagonist, a person "better than ourselves" who through some error in judgment, weakness of character, or twist of fate suffers crushing defeat or death
types of satires
exaggeration, juxtaposition, parody, dimunition
satire devices
sarcasm, innuendo, burlesque/parody, caricature
types of novels
allegorical, autobiographical, dystopian, fantasy, novella, historical, science fiction, bildungsroman, gothic, pastoral, picaresque, problem, sociological, stream of consciousness
elements of a novel
setting, atmosphere, characterization, conflict, plot, theme, dialogue, point of view
types of dramas
tragedy, comedy, problem play, farce, comedy of manners, fantasy, melodrama
autobiography
an account of all or part of a person's life written by that person, usually with publication in mind
memoir
focuses on a single period in the writer's life--often a time that coincides with important events--and on notable people known to the writer
journal
a diary; a personal record of experience, ideas, and reflections kept regularly
problem play
a type of drama which was popularized by the great Norwegian playwright Henrick Ibsen; the situation faced by the protagonist is present by the author as a representative instance of a contemporary social problem
renga
linked verse
myth
any story or plot, whether true or invented
serialization
installment to fit a predetermined number of pages; served as a medium which verified middle class views of capitalism and history
short story
a fictional narrative in prose ranging in length from @500 words to @15000 words, though certainly not always, limited to a few characters, single setting, and single incident
meter
in poetry, basic rhythmic structure of a verse
feet
meter of a verse can be described in a sequence of feet, each foot being a sequence of syllable types
iambic pentameter
a line of poetry consisting of five metrical feet
trimeter
a line of poetry consisting of three metrical feet
tetrameter
a line of poetry consisting of four metrical feet
stress
relative emphasis that may be given to certain syllables in a word
couplet
a pair of lines of verse
free verse
various styles of poetry written without strict meter or rhyme
sonnet
fourteen line poem following strict rhyme scheme and specific structure
Shakespearean sonnet
ABAB CDCD EFEF GG
haiku
Japenese poem composed of three un-rhymed lines of five, seven, five syllables
ballad
tells a story similar to a folk tale or legend and often has a repeated refrain
legend
a story, part fact and part fiction, about the life and deeds of a saint, folk hero, or historical figure, that is handed down from generation to generation and is popularly accepted as true
enjambment
continuation of a sentence from one line or couplet into the next
tanka
Japanese poetry of five lines, the first and third lines composed of five syllables, the rest seven
allegory
narrative having a second meaning beneath the surface one--a story with two meanings, a literal meaning and a symbolic meaning
limerick
a short, sometimes vulgar, humorous poem consisting of five anapestic lines; follows AABBA pattern
quatrain
a stanza or poem consisting of four lines; lines 2 and 4 must have similar syllables; follows ABCB pattern
iambic
two syllables, with long/stressed syllables following short/unstressed syllables; example: garland, kerplop
trochaic/trochee
two syllables, with short/unstressed syllables following long/stressed syllables; example: repose
anapestic
three syllables, with the first two short/unstressed and last long/stressed; example: on the road
dactylic
three syllables, with the first one long/stressed and other two short/unstressed; example: happiness
spondee
equal accent; example: heartbreak, die die
essay
a composition on a particular theme or topic
elegy
a poem of sorrow or mourning for the dead; also a reflective poem in a solemn or sorrowful mood
history
fiction that attempts to recreate past events, events that occurred before the author's time
science fiction
novels and short stories set either in the future or in some imaginary world, their settings, plots, characters, and themes the result of scientific or technological speculation
fable
usually a short and fairly simple story designed to illustrate a moral lesson
folklore
the traditional songs, legends, beliefs, crafts, and customs of people that are passed form one generation to the next by word of mouth and usually not written down until they are collected by scholars
fairy tale
a fictional story that may feature folkloric characters such as fairies, goblins, elves, trolls, giants, and talking animals, and usually enchantments, often involving a far-fetched sequence of events
frame tale
narrative technique whereby an introductory main story is composed, at least in part, for the purpose of setting the stage for a fictive narrative or organizing a set of shorter stories, each of which is a story within a story
mystery
loosely-defined term that is often used as a synonym of detective fiction — in other words a novel or short story in which a detective (either professional or amateur) solves a crime
prose
is writing that resembles everyday speech
fiction
is an imaginative form of narrative, one of the four basic rhetorical modes
non fiction
is an account or representation of a subject which is presented as fact
drama
is the specific mode of fiction represented in performance
poetry
is a form of literary art in which language is used for its aesthetic and evocative qualities in addition to, or in lieu of, its apparent meaning
verse
is formally a single line in a metrical composition
allegory
an extended narrative in prose or verse in which characters, events, and settings represent abstract qualities in which the the writer intends a second meaning to be read beneath the surface story
alliteration
the repetition of initial consonant sounds in words, such as "Peter Piper picked a peck of pickled peppers."
allusion
a reference to a familiar person, place, thing, or event--for example, Don Juan, brave new world, Everyman, Machiavellian, utopia
analogy
a comparison of objects or ideas that appear to be different but are alike in some important way
anecdote
a brief story that illustrates or makes a point
antagonist
a person or thing working against the hero of a literary work
aphorism
a wise saying, usually short and written
apostrophe
a turn from general audiences to address a group of persons (or personified abstraction) who is present or absent
assonance
a repetition of the same sound in words close to one another; example: white stripes
blank verse
unrhymed verse, often occurring in iambic pentameter
caesura
a break in the rhythm of language, particularly a natural pause in a line of verse, marked in prosody by a double vertical line
characterization
a method an author uses to let readers know more about the characters and their personal traits
cliche
an expression that has been used so often that it loses its expressive power; example: "dead as a doornail"
consonance
repetition of the final consonant sounds in words containing vowels: example: "stroke of luck"
diction
an author's choice of words based on their clearness, conciseness, effectiveness, and authenticity
end rhyme
rhyming of the ends of lines of verse
Existentialism
a philosophy that values human freedom and personal responsibility; writers include Albert Camus, Freidrich Nietzsche, Franz Kafka
flashback
a literary device in which the author jumps back in time in the chronology of a narrative
foreshadowing
a literary technique in which the authors gives hints or clues about what is to come at some point later in the story
genre
a category of literature defined by its style, form, and content
heroic couplet
a pair of verse written in iambic pentameter
hubris
the flaw that leads to the downfall of a tragic hero; comes from Greek word "hybris," which means "excessive pride"
hyperbole
an exaggeration for emphasis or rhetorical effect
imagery
the use of words to create pictures in the reader's mind
internal rhyme
rhyme that occurs within a line of verse
irony
the use of a word or phrase to mean the exact opposite of its literal or expected meaning
malapropism
a type of pun, or play on words, that results when two words become mixed up in the speakers mind; example: "don't put the horse before the cart"
metaphor
a figure of speech in which a comparison is implied but not stated, such as "The winter is a bear."
mood
the feeling a text evokes in the reader, such as sadness, tranquility, or elation
moral
a lesson a work of literature is teaching
narration
the telling of a story
onomatopoeia
the use of sounds to suggest meaning: example: buzz, click, or vroom
oxymoron
a phrase that consists of two contradictory terms; example: "deafening silence"
paradox
a contradictory statement that makes sense; for example: "Man learns from history that man learns nothing from history."
personification
a literary device in which animals, ideas, and things are represented as having human traits
point of view
the perspective from which a story is told
refrain
the repetition of a line or a phrase or a poem at regular intervals, particularly at the end of each stanza
repetition
the multiple use of a word, phrase, or idea for emphasis or rhythmic effect
rhetoric
persuasive writing
rhythm
the regular or random occurrence of sound in poetry
setting
the time and place in which the action of the story takes place
simile
a comparison of two unlike things, usually including the work "like" or "as"
style
how the author uses words, phrases, and sentences to form ideas
symbol
a person, place, thing, or event used to represent something else, such as the white flag that represents surrender
tone
the overall feeling created by the author's use of words
Transcendentalism
during the the mid-19th century in New England, several writers and intellectuals worked together to write, translate works, and publish; their philosophy focused on protesting the Puritan ethic and materialism; they valued individualism, freedom, experimentation, and spirituality; noted authors include Ralph Waldo Emerson, Nathaniel Hawthorne, Henry David Thoreau, Henry Wadsworth Longfellow, and Oliver Wendell Holmes
verse
a metric line of poetry
voice
distinctive features of a person's speech and speech patterns
ballad
a short poem, often written by an anonymous author, comprised of short verses intended to be sung or recited
canto
the main section of a long poem
elegy
a poem that is a mournful lament for the dead: example: William Shakespeare's "Elegy," Robert Louis Stevenson's "Requiem," and Alfred Lord Tennyson's "In Memoriam"
epic
a long narrative poem detailing a hero's deeds; example: "The Aeneid" by Virgil, "The Iliad" and "The Odyssey" by Homer, "Beowulf," and "Don Quixote" by Miguel Cervantes
haiku
a type of Japanese poem that is written in 17 syllables with three lines of five, seven, and five syllables
limerick
a humorous verse of five anapestic lines with a rhyme scheme of AABBA
lyric
a short poem about personal feelings or emotions
sonnet
a 14-lined poem, usually written in iambic pentameter, with a varied scheme
stanza
a division of poetry named for the number of lines it contains
fable
a short story or folklore that contains a moral, which may be expressed explicitly at the end as a maxim; examples include Aesop's "The Country Mouse and the Town Mouse," "The Tortoise and the Hair," and "The Wolf in Sheep's Clothing"
fairy tale
a narrative that is made of fantastic characters and creatures, such as witches, goblins, and fairies, and usually with the phrase "Once upon a time..." examples: 'Cinderella,' 'Rapunzel,' and 'Sleeping Beauty'
fantasy
a genre that uses magic and other supernatural forms as the primary element of plot, theme, and/or setting; examples include: JRR Tolkein's 'The Lord of the Rings' and CS Lewis's 'The Chronicles of Narnia'
folktale
a narrative form, such as an epic, legend, myth, song, poem, or fable, that has been retold within a culture for generations
frame tale
a narrative technique in which the main story is composed primarily for the purpose of organizing a set of shorter stories, each of which is a story within a story; examples include Geoffrey Chaucer's 'Canterbury Tales' and Emily Bronte's 'Wuthering Heights'
historical fiction
narrative fiction that is set in some earlier time and often contains historically authentic people, places, or events
horror
fiction that is intended to frighten, unsettle, or scare the reader; example: Mary Shelley's 'Frankenstein'
legend
a narrative about human actions that is perceived by both the teller and the listeners to have taken place within human history that possesses certain qualities that give the tale of the appearance of truth or reality; example: Washington Irving's 'The Legend of Sleepy Hollow'
mystery
a suspenseful story that deals with a puzzling crime
myth
narrative fiction that involves gods and heroes or has a theme that expresses a culture's ideology
novel
an extended fiction prose narrative
novella
a short story, usually between 50-100 pages long; examples include George Orwell's 'Animal Farm' and Frank Kafka's 'Metamorphosis'
parody
a text or performance that imitates and mocks an author or work
romance
a novel comprised of idealized events far removed from everyday life
satire
literature that makes fun of social conventions or conditions, usually to evoke change
science fiction
fiction that deals with current or future development of technological advances
short story
a brief fictional prose narrative
tragedy
literature, often drama, ending in catastrophic events for the protagonist(s) after he or she faces several problems or conflicts
western
a novel set in the western US featuring experiences of cowboys and frontiersmen
autobiography
a person's account of his or her own life
biography
a story about a person's life written by another person
document (letter, diary, journal)
expository piece written with eloquence that it becomes part of the recognized literature of an era
essay
a document organized in paragraph form that can be long or short in the form of a letter, dialogue, or discussion
euphemism
an inoffensive expression that is substituted for one that is considered offensive
idiom
a phrase whose meaning cannot be determined by the literal definition of the phrase itself, but refers instead to a figurative meaning that is known only through common use
dialect/slang
a variety of language that is characteristics of a particular group of language speakers; most often applied to regional speech patterns/social class; socially subordinate to regional/national standard language
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