AP World - (31) Western Society and Eastern Europe in the Decades of the Cold War Flashcards

Terms Definitions
Cold War
The continuing state of political conflict, military tension, proxy wars, and economic competition existing after World War II, primarily between the Soviet Union and its satellite states, and the powers of the Western world, particularly the United States.
Eastern Bloc
Nations located in Europe that were favorable to the Soviet Union during the Cold War. Ex: Poland, Czechoslovakia, Bulgaria, Romania, Hungary and East Germany.
Harry S. Truman
American president that followed Franklin Delano Roosevelt. He was less eager for smooth relations with the Soviet Union and it was his foreign policy that initiated the Cold War between the United States and the Soviet Union.
Iron Curtain
Phrase coined by Winston Churchill to describe the division between the free and communist societies of Europe.
Marshall Plan
Program of substantial loans to the states of Western Europe initiated in 1947. These loans aided the western nations in the rebuilding process from war devastation. It also served as a vehicle for American economic dominance.
North Atlantic Treaty Organization
NATO. Military alliance spearheaded by the United States and its strategic allies in Western Europe and Canada in 1949.
Warsaw Pact
Military alliance formed by the Soviet Union and its satellites in response to the western formation of NATO.
Welfare State
Created across many European nations in the post-WWII period. These governments were focused on reducing the impact of economic inequality amongst the populations of their nation. They often included medical, educational and economic planning programs.
Technocrat
New type of post-WWII bureaucrat that became prominent in the years after. These people were intensively trained in engineering and economics and were devoted to the power of national planning.
Green Movement
New wave of political growth in Europe following WWII. These political parties usually focused on environmental issues and control over economic growth.
European Union
Began as the European Economic Community or Common Market. It was an attempt to economically integrate the nations of Europe across national borders. Today it has become not only a major economic force, but also political.
New Feminism
New wave of women's rights agitation that sought to gain literal equality, thus playing down traditional roles of the genders rather than simply gaining equal political rights.
Berlin Wall
Barrier built across Berlin by East German forces to halt the unobstructed flow of East Germans from the Soviet dominated zone in to the western dominated zone of Germany.
Solidarity
Polish labor movement founded in the 1970s under labor leader Lech Walesa. It sought to challenge Soviet domination of Poland.
Aleksandr Solzhenitsyn
Russian dissident author that was critical of the Soviet regime, but also of western materialism. He published a trilogy about life in the Siberian prison camps titled The Gulag Archipelago.
De-Stalinization
Process of denouncement of the extremes of Joseph Stalin's regime. It was initiated by his successor Nikita Khrushchev.
Nikita Khrushchev
Stalin's successor as the head of the USSR. He openly attacked Stalinism because of its concentration of power and dictatorship. Due to his antagonism of Stalinist's he was brought down from power.
Truman Doctrine
President Truman's policy of providing economic and military aid to any country threatened by communism or totalitarian ideology.
Berlin Blockade
A Soviet attempt to starve the allies out of their zones in the German capital in Berlin in order to gain supremacy. The blockade was a high point in the Cold War.
West Germany
Federal Republic of Germany. Established by the Western allies and made up of the former American, British and French zones of occupation.
East Germany
German Democratic Republic. Established by the Soviet Union and made up of their former zone of occupation.
Satellite
A political term that refers to a country that is formally independent, but under heavy political and economic influence or control by another country.
Mutually Assured Destruction
A military strategy in which a full-scale use of nuclear weapons by two opposing sides would effectively result in the destruction of both the attacker and the defender. It is based on the theory of deterrence according to which the deployment of strong weapons is essential to threaten the enemy in order to prevent the use of the very same weapons. (M.A.D.)
Space Race
A competition of space exploration between the United States and Soviet Union.
Sputnik
First artificial Earth satellite, it was launched by Moscow in 1957 and sparked U.S. fears of Soviet dominance in technology and outer space. It led to the creation of NASA and the space race.
Containment
American policy of resisting further expansion of communism around the world through military alliances and intervention.
Collective Security
A system in which a group of nations acts as one to preserve the peace of all.
ANZUS Pact
A Cold War era military agreement between Australia, New Zealand and the United States.
Benelux
Belgium, Netherlands, Luxembourg.
Maastricht Agreements
Treaty which established the European Union and eventually led to creation of a European wide currency called the Euro.
Josip "Tito" Broz
WWII guerrilla leader in Yugoslavia that created a stable communist government, while resisting the influence of Stalin and the Soviet Union. His death in the the 1980s eventually led to the downfall of the Yugoslav government and civil war.
Alexander Dubcek
Czechoslovak Communist Party Leader that started reforms to lift censorship and allow openness in 1968. His reforms were condemned by the Soviet government.
Imre Nagy
Hungarian Communist Party leader who attempted to end association with the USSR which lead to the 1956 Hungarian revolt.
United Nations
An organization of independent states formed in 1945 to promote international peace and security. It was meant to replace the failed League of Nations.
Universal Declaration of Human Rights
Outlined the same basic civil rights found in many of the constitutions influenced by the natural rights identified by Enlightenment thinkers. The documented states that all people of the world are entitled to life, liberty, equality and justice. The United Nations, however, had no power to enforce the declaration, so the protection of civil rights of minorities and women is still not guaranteed in many areas of the world.
Youth Rebellions in 1968
The attitudes of the post-WWII generation toward their respective governments were less than respectful. An anti-war movement applied mostly non-violent protest tactics against the presence of U.S. troops in Vietnam. STudent protests in 1968 included mass rallies and sit-ins in capital cities worldwide from Paris and London to Prague and Buenos Aires.
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