Ch. 23 AP World History (The Emergence of Industrial Society in the West) Flashcards

Terms Definitions
Louis Pasteur
French chemist and biologist whose discovery that fermentation is caused by microorganisms resulted in the process of pasteurization (1822-1895)
Louis XVI
King of France (1774-1792). In 1789 he summoned the Estates-General, but he did not grant the reforms that were demanded and revolution followed. Louis and his queen, Marie Antoinette, were executed in 1793.
Saint-Just
Younger member of Committee of Public Safety who said, " whatever is outside the French revolution is an enemy" Executed with Robespierre
Maximilien Robespierre
He was a lawyer and a member of the National Convention. Led the Mountain side of the National Convention(Montagarde). and Chairman on the Committe of Public Safety. Helped France's financial situation through the concept of planned economy (setting price limits on certain products). Was a very large part of the radicalization of France, but efforts eventually led to the fall of France and take-over by Napoleon Bonaparte. He claimed that the Revolution was over. In a sense he was right; the last reforms were made in 1791. The people strongly disliked him for his views on the disablement of speaking against the republic. He was one of the main contributors to the laws that stated the death penalty for those who went against the revolution.
Declaration of the Rights of man and the Citizen
One of the fundamental documents of the French Revolution, defining a set of individual rights and collective rights of all of the estates as one. Influenced by the doctrine of natural rights, these rights are universal: they are supposed to be valid in all times and places, pertaining to human nature itself.
Guillotine
Introduced as a method of humane execution; utilized to execute thousands during the most radical phase of the French Revolution known as the Reign of Terror.
French Revolution
The second great democratic revolution, taking place in the 1790s, after the American Revolution had been proven to be a success. The U.S. did nothing to aid either side. The French people overthrew the king and his government, and then instituted a series of unsuccessful democratic governments until Napoleon took over as dictator in 1799.
Chinese Exclusion Act of 1882
United States federal law passed on May 6, 1882, following revisions made in 1880 to the Burlingame Treaty of 1868. Those revisions allowed the U.S. to suspend immigration, and Congress subsequently acted quickly to implement the suspension of Chinese immigration, a ban that was intended to last 10 years.
Burlingame Treaty
This treaty with China was ratified in 1868. It encouraged Chinese immigration to the United States at a time when cheap labor was in demand for U.S. railroad construction. It doubled the annual influx of Chinese immigrants between 1868 and 1882. The treaty was reversed in 1882 by the Chinese Exclusion Act.
Age of Revolution
Period of politcal upheaval beginning roughly with the American Revolution in 1775 and continuing through the French Revolution of 1789 and other movements for change up to 1848
Bastille
The political prison and armory stormed on July 14, 1789, by Partisian city workers alarmed by the king's concentration of troops at Versailles
Social Contract
The notion that society is based on an agreement between government and the governed in which people agree to give up some rights in exchange for the protection of others
Rousseau
French philosopher and writer born in Switzerland, believed people in their natural state were basically good but that they were corrupted by the evils of society, especially the uneven distribution of property
Nationalism
Political viewpoint with origins in Western Europe; often allied with other "isms"; urged importance of national unity; valued a collective identity based on culture, race, or ethnic origin.
James Watt
Scot who invented the condenser and other improvements that made the steam engine a practical source of power for industry and transportation. The watt, an electrical measurement, is named after him.
Population Revolution
Huge growth in population in Western Europe beginning about 1730; prelude to Industrial Revolution; population of France increased 50 percent, England and Prussia 100 percent.
Proto-Industrialization
Preliminary shift away from agricultural economy in Europe; workers become full- or part-time producers of textile and metal products, working at home but in a capitalist system in which materials, work orders, and ultimate sales depended on urban merchants; prelude to Industrial Revolution.
Stamp Act
A law passed by the British Parliament in 1765 requiring colonists to pay a tax on newspapers, pamphlets, legal documents, and even playing cards.The colonists heartily objected to this direct tax and in protest petitioned the king, formed the Stamp Act Congress, and boycotted English imports. In 1766 Parliament repealed this Act, a major victory for colonists.
Reign of Terror
Period in the French Revolution. It was established by the government on Sept. 5, 1793, to take harsh measures against those suspected of being enemies of the Revolution (including nobles, priests, and hoarders). Controlled by the radical Committee of Public Safety and Maximilien Robespierre, the Terror eliminated enemies on the left (Jacques Hébert and his followers) and the right (Georges Danton and the Indulgents).
Committee of Public Safety
The leaders under Robespierre who organized the defenses of France, conducted foreign policy, and centralized authority during the period 1792-1795.Basically secret police and also controlled the war effort. Instigated the Reign of Terror.
Marie Antoinette
Queen of France (as wife of Louis XVI) who was unpopular her extravagance and opposition to reform contributed to the overthrow of the monarchy; she was guillotined along with her husband (1755-1793)
Estates General
France's traditional national assembly with representatives of the three estates, or classes, in French society: the clergy, nobility, and commoners. The calling of the Estates General in 1789 led to the French Revolution.
Napoleon Bonaparte
Overthrew French Directory in 1799 and became emperor of the French in 1804. Failed to defeat Great Britain and abdicated in 1814. Returned to power briefly in 1815 but was defeated and died in exile.
Congress of Vienna
The Quadruple Alliance met, to discuss the Balance of Power. Great Britian got to have their conquered colonies, Austria got Venetia and Lombardy and Polis lands, and Prussia and Russia were compensated.
Prince Metternich
Austrian minister, believed in the policies of legitimacy and intervention (the military to crush revolts against legitimacy). Leader of the Congress of Vienna.
Quadruple Alliance
G.B., Austria, Prussia, and Russia united to defeat France and their Bonapartism, and also to ensure peace after war. After Napoleon, they resotred the Bourbon monarchy to France.
Elba
This island in the Mediterranean Sea off of Italy where Napoleon was initially exiled after he abdicated the throne for the first time. He promised to never leave, but does so and regains power in France for a short period called the Hundred Days
St. Helena
Where Napoleon was exiled until the end of his life. 1815,1821 Revolution comes to an inglorious end.
Hundred Days
The brief period during 1815 when Napoleon made his last bid for power, deposing the French King and again becoming Emperor of France
American Civil War
Fought from 1861 to 1865; first application of Industrial Revolution to warfare; resulted in abolition of slavery in the United States and reunification of North and South.
Conservatives
Political viewpoint with origins in western Europe during the 19th Century; opposed revolutionary goals; advanced restoration of monarchy and defense of Church
Liberal
Political viewpoint with origins in Western Europe during the 19th century; stressed limited state interference in individual life, representation of propertied people in government; urged importance of constitutional rule and parliaments.
Radical
Political viewpoint with origins in western Europe during the 19th century; advocated broader voting rights than liberals; in some cases advocated outright democracy; urged reforms in favor of the lower classes
Greek Revolution
Rebellion in Greece against the Ottoman Empire in 1820; key step in gradually dismantling the Ottoman Empire in the Balkans.
French Revolution of 1830
Second revolution against the Bourbon dynasty; a liberal movement that created a bourgeois government under a moderate monarchy.
Andrew Jackson
The seventh President of the United States (1829-1837), who as a general in the War of 1812 defeated the British at New Orleans (1815). As president he opposed the Bank of America, objected to the right of individual states to nullify disagreeable federal laws, and increased the presidential powers. Probably the first populist President.
Reform Bill of 1832
Legislation passed in Great Britain that extended the vote to most members of the middle class; failed to produce democracy in Britain.
Charist Movement
Attempt to by artisans and workers in Britain to gain the vote during 1840s; demands for reform beyond the reform bill of 1832 were incorporated into a series of petitions; movement failed
French Revolution of 1848
Overthrew the monarchy established in 1830; briefly established a democratic republic; failure of the republic led to the reestablishment of the French Empire under Napoleon III in 1850.
Luddism
Named after mythical leader, Ned Ludd, machine-breakers tyrannized parts of Great Britain in an attempt to frighten masters. Workers damaged and destroyed property for more control over the work process, but were met with repression.
Luddites
Any of a group of British workers who between 1811 and 1816 rioted and destroyed laborsaving textile machinery in the belief that such machinery would diminish employment.
Otto Von Bismarck
Chancellor of Prussia from 1862 until 1871, when he became chancellor of Germany. A conservative nationalist, he led Prussia to victory against Austria (1866) and France (1870) and was responsible for the creation of the German Empire
Trasformismo
Political system in late 19th-century Italy that promoted alliance of conservatives and liberals; parliamentary deputies of all parties supported the status quo.
Social Question
Issues relating to workers and women in western Europe during the Industrial Revolution; became more critical than constitutional issues after 1870.
Socialism
Political movement with origins in Western Europe during the 19th century; urged an attack on private property in the name of equality; wanted state control of means of production, end to capitalist exploitation of the working man.
Karl Marx
German socialist of the mid-19th century; blasted earlier socialist movements as utopian; saw history as defined by class struggle between groups out of power and those controlling the means of production; preached necessity of social revolution to create proletarian dictatorship.
Revisionism
Socialist movements that at least tacitly disavowed Marxist revolutionary doctrine; believed social success could be achieved gradually through political institutions.
Feminist Movements
Sought various legal and economic gains for women, including equal access to professions and higher education; came to concentrate on right to vote; won support particularly from middle-class women; active in Western Europe at the end of the 19th century; revived in light of other issues in the 1960s.
Emmeline Pankhurst
British suffrage leader. Led movement to win the vote for women in Great Britain. Founded the Women Social and Political Union in 1903, which held public meetings and led protest marches to the House of Commons. Jailed several times between 1908 and 1913, and used hunger strikes to protest. World War I compelled her to stop her feminist campaigns and join the war effort.
Fabian Society
Group of English socialists, including George Bernard Shaw, Emmeline Pankhurst, Beatrice Webb, and H.G Wells who advocated electoral victories rather than violent revolution to bring about social change.
Das Kapital
Published in 1867 by Karl Marx. Volumes II and III edited by Engels and published after Marx's death. More mature thought and sophisticated/academic approach than the Manifesto. Outlined the system for producing the revolution. Concentrated on economic theory. Emphasized the labor theory of value. Saw capital as "stored-up labor from former times." Justified his theories in more academic way. Had spent years in British Museum doing his research. Justified his brand of "socialism" as being more scientific.
The Communist Manifesto
Written by Marx and Engels; said that human societies have always been in warring class; put the middle class as "haves" and the working class as "have-nots"; said that IR had enriched the wealthy and impoverished the poor, predicting that the workers would overthrow the owners; inspired revolutionaries to adapt Marx's beliefs to their own situations
Mass Leisure Culture
An aspect of the later Industrial Revolution; based on newspapers, music halls, popular theater, vacation trips, and team sports.
Charles Darwin
English naturalist. He studied the plants and animals of South America and the Pacific islands, and in his book On the Origin of Species by Means of Natural Selection (1859) set forth his theory of evolution.-
On the Origin of the Species
Darwin wrote this book in 1859 in which he presented his theory of evolution in the principle of natural selection. The basic idea of this book was that all plants and animals had evolved over a long period of time from earlier and simpler forms of life. In this book, Darwin also presented the theory of natural selection and "survival of the fit." In this book, Darwin discussed plant and animal species only. He was not concerned with humans themselves.
Albert Einstein
1879-1955. German born theoretical physicist. Best known for his theory of relativity and his theory of energy equivalence. Received Nobel Prize in 1921 for physics.
Sigmund Freud
Leading psychologist of the twentieth century. Assumed that a single, unified conscious mind processed sense experiences in a rational and logical way. Analyzed dreams and hysteria. Believed that rational thinking and traditional moral values will repress sexual desires too effectively, causing guilt and neurotic fears.
Wilhelm Wundt
German physiologist who founded psychology as formal science; opened first psychology research laboratory in 1879
Romanticism
Artistic and literary movement of the 19th century in Europe; held that emotion and impression, not reason, were the keys to the mysteries of human experience and nature; sought to portray passions, not calm reflection.
Urbanization
An increase in the percentage and in the number of people living in urban settlements.
Monroe Doctrine
A statement of foreign policy which proclaimed that Europe should not interfere in affairs within the United States or in the development of other countries in the Western Hemisphere.
Henry James
American writer who lived in England. Wrote numerous novels around the theme of the conflict between American innocence and European sophistication/corruption, with an emphasis on the psychological motivations of the characters. Famous for his novel Washington Square and his short story "The Turn of the Screw."
Triple Alliance
Alliance among Germany, Austria-Hungary, and Italy at the end of the 19th century; part of European alliance system and balance of power prior to World War I.
Triple Entente
A military alliance between Great Britain, France, and Russia in the years preceding World War I.
Balkan Nationalism
Movements to create independent nations within the Balkan possessions of the Ottoman Empire; provoked a series of crises within the European alliance system; eventually led to World War I.
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