American Society Sem 2 final exam Flashcards

Terms Definitions
Demobilization
act of changing from a war basis to a peace basis including disbanding or discharging troops
Statute of limitations
establishes a time limit for suing in a civil case, based on the date when the breach occurred or was discovered
Censure
harsh criticism or disapproval
Cold War
This period of time following World War II is where the United States and the Soviet Union emerged as superpowers and faced off in an arms race that lasted nearly 50 years.
anti-Semitism
discrimination against jews
Brinkmanship
the willingness to go to the brink of war to force an opponent to back down
Domino Theory
the political theory that if one nation comes under Communist control then neighboring nations will also come under Communist control
Segregation/integration
segregation- separation of people of different races; integration- mixing of blacks and whites in housing, schools and other public facilities
De Facto Segregation
Segregation resulting from tradition and custom
Sit-ins
protests by black college students, 1960-1961, who took seats at "whites only" lunch counters and refused to leave until served; in 1960 over 50,000 participated in sit-ins across the South. Their success prompted the formation of the Student Non-Violent Coordinating Committee.
Nepotism
favoritism shown to a family or friends by those in power, especially in business or hiring practices
Magic bullet theory
theory that one bullet hit JFK and also hit the governor of Texas with one shot
Landslide
an overwhelming electoral victory
Doves
Americans who opposed the Vietnam War.
Hippie
participants in the 1960s counterculture who promoted peace, love, and freedom, experimented w/new styles of dress and music, had freer attitudes toward sexual relationships, and the recreational use of drugs
Agent Orange
A chemical weapon that revealed VC and NVA hiding places by destroying forests, brush, and crops. It was later discovered that the chemical had effects on livestock and even humans, like Vietnamese civilians and American troops.
Napalm
Gasoline-based bombs that stick to what they land on and burn fiercely. This makes napalm a more frightening adversary then using normal gas
MIA
soldiers listed as Missing In Action
OPEC
Organization of Petroleum Exporting Countries; international cartel that inflates price of oil by limiting supply; Venezuela, Saudi Arabia and UAE are prominent members
Hush Money
money which is paid to someone to keep quiet about some scandal or secret
Impeachment
The political equivalent of an indictment in criminal law, prescribed by the Constitution. The House of Representatives may impeach the president by a majority vote for "Treason, Bribery, or other high Crimes and Misdemeanors."
Legislative Branch
the branch of government that makes the laws.
Treason
Betrayal of one's country
Writ of habeas corpus
a court order that requires police to bring a prisoner to court to explain why they are holding the person
Line item veto
Presidential power to strike, or remove, specific items from a spending bill without vetoing the entire package; declared unconstitutional by the Supreme Court.
Reaganomics
The federal economic polices of the Reagan administration, elected in 1981. These policies combined a monetarist fiscal policy, supply-side tax cuts, and domestic budget cutting. Their goal was to reduce the size of the federal government and stimulate economic growth.
National debt
the amount of money a national government owes to other governments or its people
Iran-Contra Scandal
Although Congress had prohibited aid to the Nicaraguan contras, individuals in Reagan's administration continued to illegally support the rebels. These officials secretly sold weapons to Iran in exchange for the release of American hostages being held in the Middle East. Profits from these sales were then sent to the contras.
Glasnost
Policy of openness initiated by Gorbachev in the 1980s that provided increased opportunities for freedom of speech, association and the press in the Soviet Union.
Hutus and Tutsis
Two African groups who were living together in central Africa. Hutu ran the government and resented the Tutsis who were better educated. Tutus went to Uganda formed a party to overthrow the Hutu in central Aftrica
9/11
a series of coordinated suicide attacks by al-Qaeda upon the United States on September 11, 2001. On that morning, 19 al-Qaeda terrorists hijacked four commercial passenger jet airliners. The hijackers intentionally crashed two of the airliners into the Twin Towers of the World Trade Center in New York City, killing everyone on board and many others working in the buildings.
reconversion
transition from wartime economy to peacetime economy
espionage
the act of spying, especially a government spy obtaining secrets of another government
plea bargain
(criminal law) a negotiation in which the defendant agrees to enter a plea of guilty to a lesser charge and the prosecutor agrees to drop a more serious charge
containment
a U.S. foreign policy adopted by President Harry Truman in the late 1940s, in which the United States tried to stop the spread of communism by creating alliances and helping weak countries to resist Soviet advances
"Duck and Cover"
Schoolchildren practiced crawling under their desks and putting their hands over their heads to protect themselves from an atomic bomb attack.
Guerrilla Warfare
a hit-and-run technique used in fighting a war; fighting by small bands of warriors using tactics such as sudden ambushes
Baby Boom
An increase in population by almost 30 million people. This spurred a growth in suburbs and three to four children families.
Dejure segregation
segregation by law
Separate But Equal
the argument, once upheld by the supreme court but later reversed, that different public facilities for blacks and whites were constitutional if the facilities were of equal quality
Civil Disobedience
A form of political participation that reflects a conscious decision to break a law believed to be immoral and to suffer the consequences
Arms Race
Cold war competition between the U.S. and Soviet Union to build up their respective armed forces and weapons
Grassy knoll
area from which alleged 2nd shooter killed JFK, major part of conspiracy, but no evidence
Escalation
policy of increasing military involvement in Vietnam
Hawks
Americans who supported the Vietnam War
Counterculture
group that rejects the values, norms, and practices of the larger society and replaces them with a new set of cultural patterns
Vietnamization
President Richard Nixons strategy for ending U.S involvement in the vietnam war, involving a gradual withdrawl of American troops and replacement of them with South Vietnamese forces
POW
prisoner of war
Oil Embargo
Economic crisis of 1973 that occurred when OPEC nations refused to export oil to Western nations. Ensuing economic crisis plagued Gerald Ford's time in office.
Executive Privilege
The power to keep executive communications confidential, especially if they relate to national security.
Executive Branch
the branch of government, headed by the president, that carries out the nation's laws and policies
Judicial Branch
the branch of government, including the federal court system, that interprets the nation's laws
Ex post facto laws
A law which punishes people for a crime that was not a crime when it was committed. Congress cannot pass these laws.
Double Jeopardy
the prosecution of a defendant for a criminal offense for which he has already been tried
Energy Crisis
when Carter entered office inflation soared, due to toe the increases in energy prices by OPEC. In the summer of 1979, instability in the Middle East produced a major fuel shortage in the US, and OPEC announced a major price increase. Facing pressure to act, Carter retreated to Camp David, the presidential retreat in the Maryland Mountains. Ten days later, Carter emerged with a speech including a series of proposals for resolving the energy crisis.
Trickle Down Theory
Benefits and tax cuts to businesses and the rich will benefit those with less as well, wealth will trickle down. ( Reagenomics)
Terrorism
the use of violence by non-governmental groups against civilians to achieve a political goal by instilling fear and frightening governments into changing policies
perestroika
an economic policy adopted in the former Soviet Union
desert storm
Desert Storm was the name given to the operation to liberate Kuwait. The operation was a success, Kuwait was liberated and Iraq defeated.
federal surplus
the difference between federal government spending and taxes when taxes are greater than spending
Harry Truman
The 33rd U.S. president, who succeeded Franklin D. Roosevelt upon Roosevelt's death in April 1945. Truman, who led the country through the last few months of World War II, is best known for making the controversial decision to use two atomic bombs against Japan in August 1945. After the war, Truman was crucial in the implementation of the Marshall Plan, which greatly accelerated Western Europe's economic recovery.
Whittaker Chambers
former communist who denounced the party and accused Alger Hiss, government official, of being a secret member of the communist party and passing information to the Soviets.
Joe McCarthy
Winsconsin Senator that created a national witch hunt for socialist and communists inside the United States after WWII
David Greenglass
convicted along with the rosenbergs of selling nuclear secrets to USSR
Ruth Greenglass
She was involved in the spy ring. She recruited her husband, David. She served no time because of deal David cut with the United States Government
Winston Churchill
A noted British statesman who led Britain throughout most of World War II and along with Roosevelt planned many allied campaigns. He predicted an iron curtain that would separate Communist Europe from the rest of the West.
Marshall Plan
Introduced by Secretary of State George G. Marshall in 1947, he proposed massive and systematic American economic aid to Europe to revitalize the European economies after WWII and help prevent the spread of Communism.
Berlin Airlift
Successful effort by the United States and Britain to ship by air 2.3 million tons of supplies to the residents of the Western-controlled sectors of Berlin from June 1948 to May 1949, in response to a Soviet blockade of all land and canal routes to the divided city.
Warsaw Pact
treaty signed in 1945 that formed an alliance of the Eastern European countries behind the Iron Curtain; USSR, Albania, Bulgaria, Czechoslovakia, East Germany, Hungary, Poland, and Romania
Chiang Kai-shek
General and leader of Nationalist China after 1925. Although he succeeded Sun Yat-sen as head of the Guomindang, he became a military dictator whose major goal was to crush the communist movement led by Mao Zedong. (p. 788)
Inchon
Place in North Korea where General MacArthur landed and suprised the enemy.
yasser arafat
longtime leader of the Palestinian people through the PLO (Palestine Liberation Organization) died in 2004
Dwight eisenhower
American general and 34th president of the United States. He was the principal architect of the successful Allied invasion of Europe during WORLD WAR II and of the subsequent defeat of Nazi Germany. As president, he ended the Korean War, but his two terms (1953-1961) produced few legislative landmarks or dramatic initiatives in foreign policy. His presidency is remembered as a period of relative calm in the United States.
checkers speech
Given by Richard Nixon on September 23, 1952, when he was the Republican candidate for the Vice Presidency. Said to have saved his career from a campaign contributions scandal.
Dien bien phu
In 1946, war broke out between communist insurgents in North Vietnam, called the Viet Minh, and the French Colonial government. In the spring of 1954, the Viet Minh surrounded and destroyed the primary French fortress in North Vietnam at Dien Bien Phu. The defeat was so disastrous for the French that they decided to withdraw from Vietnam.
Suez canal
Seized by British, French and Israeli forces in 1956 to pressure socialist-leaning Egyptian president NASSER; President Dwight EISENHOWER reacted strongly against this!
CIA
Central Intelligence Agency (CIA) is a civilian intelligence agency of the United States government. Its primary function is obtaining and analyzing information about foreign governments, corporations, and persons in order to advise public policymakers
NASA
Founded in 1958 to compete with Russia's space program. It gained prestige and power with Kennedy's charge to reach the moon by the end of the 1960s. Over the years, NASA has sent experditions to the moon, developed and managed the space station and space shuttle programs and sent probes to Mars
Fidel Castro
led the revolution of Cuba and took control of Cuba in 1959; resented past dictators; made Cuba communist
U-2 incident
The incident when an American U-2 spy plane was shot down over the Soviet Union. The U.S. denied the true purpose of the plane at first, but was forced to when the U.S.S.R. produced the living pilot and the largely intact plane to validate their claim of being spied on aerially. The incident worsened East-West relations during the Cold War and was a great embarrassment for the United States.
plessy V. Ferguson
a 1896 Supreme Court decision which legalized state ordered segregation so long as the facilities for blacks and whites were equal
Brown V. Board Of Education
1954 - The Supreme Court overruled Plessy v. Ferguson, declared that racially segregated facilities are inherently unequal and ordered all public schools desegregated.
Elizabeth Eckford
One of the Little Rock Nine, who is known for a picture of her walking in the face of a mob.
Montgomery Bus Boycott
In 1955, after Rosa Parks was arrested for refusing to give up her seat on a city bus, Dr. Martin L. King led a boycott of city busses. After 11 months the Supreme Court ruled that segregation of public transportation was illegal.
SCLC
Southern Christian Leadership Conference, churches link together to inform blacks about changes in the Civil Rights Movement, led by MLK Jr., was a success
JFK
35th President of the United States, didn't believe in segregation; president during the Cuban Missile Crisis ....president from 1961 - 1963 first Catholic presedent.
Black Muslims
Developed by the black Muslim Leader Elijah Muhammad who preached black nationalism, separatism, and self-improvement. The movement attracted thousands of followers.
Peace Corp
Kennedy administration program that sent youthful American volunteers to work in underdeveloped countries
Cuban missile crisis
an international crisis in October 1962, the closest approach to nuclear war at any time between the U.S. and the USSR. When the U.S. discovered Soviet nuclear missiles on Cuba, President John F. Kennedy demanded their removal and announced a naval blockade of the island; the Soviet leader Khrushchev acceded to the U.S. demands a week later.
Vietcong
A group of Communist guerrillas who, with the help of North Vietnam, fought against the South Vietnamese government in the Vietnam War.
Lee Harvey Oswald
On November 22, 1963, he assassinated President Kennedy who was riding downtown Dallas, Texas. Oswald was later shot in front of television cameras by Jack Ruby.
Warren Comission
set up to investigate the assassination of JFK, investigated the assassination they found oswald was the only gunman
Barry Goldwater
An American senator for Arizona who ran against Johnson for president. His extreme conservatism scared many into voting for Johnson.
Civil Rights act of 1968
this law banned discrimination in housing, the segregation of education, transprotation, and employment, it helped African Americans gain their full votin rights.
Civil rights act of 1964
This act made racial, religious, and sex discrimination by employers illegal and gave the government the power to enforce all laws governing civil rights, including desegregation of schools and public places.
Gulf of tonkin
Incident in 1964 that President Johnson used to justify increased U.S. involvement in the Vietnam War. Claim was that two U.S. ships had been attacked.
CREEP
Nixon Whitehouse fundraising organization, laundred money in what came to be know as Watergate Scandal
Haldeman
One of the two people Nixon "let go" claiming "there can be no white wash in the white house"
Ehrlichman
Chief Domestic Advisor under nixon
archibald Cox
A professor of Harvard law school who also worked with the Department of Labor. He was the appointed Special Prosecutor over the Watergate case.
Alger Hiss
A former State Department official who was accused of being a Communist spy and was convicted of perjury. The case was prosecuted by Richard Nixon.
Pumpkin papers
Papers hidden in Whittaker Chambers' yard proving Alger Hiss a Communist
Julius and Ethel Rosenberg
Arrested in the Summer of 1950 and executed in 1953, they were convicted of conspiring to commit espionage by passing plans for the atomic bomb to the Soviet Union.
Joseph Stalin
Russian leader who succeeded Lenin as head of the Communist Party and created a totalitarian state by purging all opposition (1879-1953)
Truman doctrine
First established in 1947 after Britain no longer could afford to provide anti-communist aid to Greece and Turkey, it pledged to provide U.S. military and economic aid to any nation threatened by communism.
Berlin Blockade
The blockade was a Soviet attempt to starve out the allies in Berlin in order to gain supremacy. The blockade was a high point in the Cold War, and it led to the Berlin Airlift.
Nato
North Atlantic Treaty Organization; an alliance made to defend one another if they were attacked by any other country; US, England, France, Canada, Western European countries
Maozedong
Communist leader who formed the Peoples Republic of China.
Korean War
The conflict between Communist North Korea and Non-Communist South Korea. The United Nations (led by the United States) helped South Korea.
Pusan Perimeter
Location of the Battle of Pusan Perimeter. Defined by the furthest advance by North Korean forces during the Korean War. American and South Korean forces halt North Korea's advance to the South
Palestine Liberation Organization.
a political movement uniting Palestinian Arabs in an effort to create an independent state of Palestine
Downwind people
people in the areas of testing of nuclear bombs
adlai stevensen
Democratic candidate for '52 amd '56 who believed women should be raising proper sons.
Ho Chi minh
Vietnamese communist statesman who fought the Japanese in World War II and the French until 1954 and South vietnam until 1975 (1890-1969)
Eisenhower Doctrine
policy of the US that it would defend the middle east against attack by any communist country
Fulgencio Batista
He was a pro-American dictator of Cuba before Castro. His overthrow led to Castro and communists taking over Cuba, who was now friendly to the Soviets.
Earl warren
United States jurist who served as chief justice of the United States Supreme Court (1891-1974)
rosa parks
United States civil rights leader who refused to give up her seat on a bus to a white man in Montgomery (Alabama) and so triggered the national civil rights movement (born in 1913)
new frontier
The campaign program advocated by JFK in the 1960 election. He promised to revitalize the stagnant economy and enact reform legislation in education, health care, and civil rights.
black power
the belief that blacks should fight back if attacked. it urged blacks to achieve economic independence by starting and supporting their own business.
Sirhan sirhan
Assassinated Robert Kennedy on June 6, 1968 in Chicago after hearing pro-Israeli remarks in his victory statement after having won the California primaries.
operation rolling thunder
a strategy of gradually intensified bombing of North Vietnam, began in February 1965. Less than a month later, Johnson ordered the first US combat troops to South Vietnam, and in July he shifted US troops from defensive to offensive operations, dispatching 50,000 more soldiers.
mylai massacre
during the year of 1968 American Troops came and killed over 300 people in the Mylai Village of South Vietnam, resulting in military prosecutions of the participants once this occurred it changed Americans to become agaisnt the war
pol pot
Leader of the Khmer Rouge in Cambodia, who terrorized the people of Cambodia throughout the 1970's
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