First Aid - Pathology Flashcards

Terms Definitions
liquefactive necrosis
brain
Coagulative necrosis
heart
liver
kidneys
HHV-8
Kaposi's
B-cell lymphoma
hyperparathyroidism
excessive PTH
Radiation exposure neoplasm
sarcoma
fibrinoid necrosis
blood vessels
Down Syndrome neoplasms
ALL
AML
ST depression
subendocardial infarct
Inheritance pattern for hemochromatosis
AR
Genotype for Turners syndrome
XO
malignant epithelial tumors
adenocarcinoma
papillary carcinoma
Exudate
cellular
protein rich
spec gravity greater than 1.020
N-myc
associated tumor
oncogene or tumor suppressor
neuroblastoma
oncogene
Malignant epithelial tumors marker
CA-125
Yolk sac tumor marker
AFP
aortic regurgitation
immediate high-pitched "blowing" diastolic murmur
wide pulse pressure
emphysema
"pink puffer"destruction of alveolar walls -> enlargement of airspaces and decreased recoilcaused by smoking and alpha1-antitrypsin deficiency -> increased elastase activity
Inheritance pattern for sphingolipidoses- ?

EXCEPT- ?
AR

EXCEPT Fabrys
Inheritance pattern for thalassemias and sickle cell anemias
AR
Bone mets
P.T. Barnum Loves Kids
Prostate
Thyroid
Testes
Breast
Lung
Kidney
Chronic atrophic gastritis,
pernicious anemia neoplasms
gastric adenocarcinoma
When does apoptosis occur?
(5)
embryogenesis
hormone induction(menstruation)
immune cell-med death
injurious stimuli (radiation, hypoxia)
atrophy (endometrial lining- menopause)
HTLV-1 associated cancer
T cell leuk
carcinoid syndrome
recurrent diarrhea, cutaneous flushing, asthmatic wheezing, right-sided valvular disease
Which type of pneumonia involves intra-alveolar exudate?
lobar
Pataus syndrome is also called
Trisomy 13
Testicular atrophy, eunuchoid body shape, tall, long extremities, gynecomastia, female hair distribution, presence of inactivated X chromosome (Barr body)
Klinefelter syndrome
Alzheimers amyloid:
derived from
amyloid precursor protein (APP)
Plummer-Vinson syndrome neoplasm (esophageal web, anemia, atrophic glossitis)
SCC of esophagus
Rolling
E-selectin and P-selectin on vascular endothelium

sialyl LewisX on leukocyte
DPC
associated tumor
oncogene or tumor suppressor
pancreatic
tumor suppressor
18q
p16
associated tumor
oncogene or tumor suppressor
Melanoma
tumor suppressor
9p
naphthalene dyes (analine) affect which organ and cause what?
bladder TCC
prostate ca tumor markers
PSA
prostatic acid phosphatase
pseudohypoparathyroidism
kidney unresponsive to PTH -> hypocalcemia, shortened 4th/5th digits, short stature
autosomal recessive
What fraction of carcinoid tumors metasitasize?
1/3
Cushing's disease
primary pituitary adenoma (increased ACTH)
Hashimoto's thyroiditis
autoimmune disorder resulting in hypothyroidism
60-80x risk of developing thyroid lymphoma compared to normal controls
patent ductus arteriosus
continusos machine-like murmur
loudest at time of S2
atreriolosclerosis
hyaline thickening of small arteries in essential HTN
hyperplastic "onion-skinning" in malignant HTN
Wegner's granulomatosis
characterized by focal necrotizing vasculitis and necrotizing granulomas in the lung and upper airway and by necrotizing glomerulonephritis
What disease is Kartagener's syndrome associated with?
situs inversus
Which COPD disease is associated w/ Curschmann's spirals?
asthma
Which type of pneumonia is most frequently caused by Chlamydia?
interstitial
Which COPD disease is associated w/ Kartagener's syndrome?
bronchiectasis
Mental retardation, flat facial profile, prominent epicantal folds, simian crease - diagnosis?
Downs trisomy 21
X linked defect affecting methylation and expression of FMR1 gene, associated with macro-orchidism (enlarged testes), long face with large jaw, large everted ears and autism
Fragile X
Male to female ratio for coarctation of aort
3:1
Patient suffers from "cyanotic spells", x ray shows boot shaped heart - diagnosis?
Tetraology of Fallot
Secondary amyloid:
derived from
Serum amyloid-associated (SAA) protein (chronic inflammatory disease)
inflammation is characterized by:
5
rubor -red
dolor- pain
calor- heat
tumor- swelling
functio laesa - loss of function
TNM tumor staging system
t tumor
n node
m mets
Which type of thyroid cancer has excellent prognosis?
papillary
Which type of thyroid cancer has psammoma bodies?
papillary
unstable/cresendo angina
prolonged or recurrent pain at rest
often indicative of imminent MI
microscopic polyangiitis
similar to Wegner's granulomatosis but lacks granulomas
P- or C-ANCA
Monckeberg atherosclerosis
calcification of the arteries, esp. radial or ulnar
usually benign
neonatal respiratory distress syndrome
surfactant deficiency -> increased surface tension -> alveolar collapse
Most common lethal genetic disease of Caucasians
Cystic fibrosis
Common cause of hypogonadism see in infertility workup
Klinefelter syndrome
Occular abnormality in Marfans syndrome
Subluxation of the lens
What is necrosis?
enzymatic degradation of a cell resulting from exogenous injury
NF2
associated tumor
oncogene or tumor suppressor
neurofibromastis type 2
tumor suppressor
22q
Which MEN types include pancreatic tumors?
MEN type I
MEN syndromes have what kind of inheritance?
autosomal dominant
Which type of angina has intermittent chest pain at rest?
Prinzmetal's angina
How long does LDH stay elevated post-MI?
2-7 days
Abestosis increases the risk of what?
pleural mesothelioma, bronchogenic carcinoma
What should you check in physical exam if suspect coarctation of aorta
Femoral pulses
Child may squat to increase venous return - what type of shunt?
Right to left
Name 4 parts of tetralogy of Fallot
PROVe

Pulmonary stenosis
Right ventricular hypertrophy
Overriding aorta
VSD
Aflatoxins affect which organ and cause what?
Liver (HCC)
produced by aspergillus
What is the most common tumor of the adrenal medulla in children?
neuroblastoma
hypothyroidism
high TSH, low total T4, low free T4, low T3 uptake
Which MEN types include oral and intestinal ganglioneuromatosis (mucosal neuromas)?
MEN type III
What are the lab findings of secondary hyperparathyroidism?
increased PTH
hypocalcemia
hyperphosphatemia
hypertrophic cardiomyopathy
walls of LV are thickened (esp. the ventricular septum) and chamber becomes banana shaped
cause of sudden death in young athletes
50% inheriited as autosomal dominant trait
characterized microscopically by disoriented and tangled myocardial fibers
What are the clinical symptoms of temporal arteritis?
unilateral headache
jaw claudication
imparied vision (occlusion of opthalmic artery -> blindness)
Which type of angina is caused by vasospasms?
Prinzmetal's angina
Testes present but external genitalia are female or ambiguous - name condition + cause
Male pseudohermaphroditism - androgen insensitivity syndrome (testicular feminization)
Cystic fibrosis can present as _ in infancy
Failure to thrive
Psammoma bodies
what are they and what neoplasms are they associated with?
(PSMM)
laminated, concentric, calcific spherules seen in:
1. papillary adenocarc of thyroid
2. serous pap cystadenoma ovary
3. meningioma
4. malignant mesothelioma
Is subacute thyroiditis hyper- or hypothyroid?
hypothyroid, however may be hyperthyroid early in course
What is the treatment for central diabetes insipidus?
intranasal desmopressin (ADH analog)
What is the most common cardiomyopathy?
dilated (congestive) cardiomyopathy - 90%
What is the test of choice for MI in the first 24 hours post-MI?
CK-MB
What is the treatment for neonatal respiratory distress syndrome?
maternal steroids before birth, artificial surfactant for infant
Cause of transposition of great vessels
Failure of aorticopulmonary septum to spiral
Where does weakness begins in patients with Duschennes
Pelvic girdle and moves superiorly
asbestos affects which organ and cause what?
lung mesothelioma, pleural plaques etc
secondary aldosterone and cortisol insufficiency
similar to Addison's except w/o skin hyperpigmentation
What are the complications of an MI?
cardiac arrhythmia
LV failure and pulmonary edema
cardiogenic shock
rupture of ventricular free wall, interventricular septum, papillary muscle, cardiac tamponade
thromboembolism - mural thrombus
fibrinous pericarditis (friction fub)
Dressler's syndrome (autoimmune pheenomenon resulting in fibrinous pericarditis)
Where do pale infarcts occur?
in solid tissues w/ single blood supply (e.g., brain, heart, kidney, spleen)
In adult type of coarctation of aorta stenosis is distal or proximal to ductus arteriosus
Distal (postductal)

ADult= Distal to Ductus
What is the clinical presentation of hypothyroidism?
cold intolerance , hypoactivity, wt. gain, fatigue, lethargy, decreased appetite, constipation, weakness, decreased reflexes, myxedema, dry, cool skin, coarse-brittle hair
Is AST specific for liver?
no
can also be found in cardiac, liver and skeletal muscle cells
7 year old male requires assistance of the upper extremities to stand up (proximal lower limb weakness) - name phenomenon and condition
Gowers maneuver - Duschennes muscular dystrophy
What are the clinical features of Cushing's syndrome?
HTN, wt. gain, moon facies, truncal ovesity, buffalo hump, hyperglycemia (insulin resistance), skin changes (thinning, striae), osteoperosis, amenorrhea, innume suppression
What type of mutation is in Fragile X
Triple repeat disorder (CGG) that may show genetic anticipation (germlike expansion in females)
/ 99
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