First Aid 2 Flashcards

Terms Definitions
Memory loss
tearing away.
1-5 breath:persec
for adults
subnormal body temperature.
What is HIV?
Human Immunovirus.
Multi-lobed nucleus, azurophilic primary granules contain hydrolytic enzymes
a part torn off
Name of poison in plants?
Experimental study. Compares therapeutic benefits of 2 or more treatments, or treatment and placebo
Clinical Trial
Contents of Foramen Ovale
stretching/tearing of ligaments & other tissue structures @ the joint
Affects of BW bite?
ParalysisFlu LikeNeedle prick
Childhood disorders - continued behavior violating social norms.
Conduct disorder
Branchial pouch derivatives

3rd pouch (dorsal wings) =
Inferior parathyroids
Plasma cell
Off-center nucleus, clock face chromatin. Multiple myeloma is a plasma cell neoplasm
Is CPR performed on the battlefield?
However, AIDS cannot be contracted through touching or hugging. Also AIDS cannot be transfered by animal or insect bites or eating food prepared by someone with HIV.
Using direct physical contact, remove the victim from danger.
oxygen is prevented from reaching the tissues by obstruction of or damage to any part of the respiratory system or condition where there is interruption of effective gaseous exchange in lungs.
Injury from a sharp pointed object (knife,ice pick,bullet)
Perceptions in the absence of external stimuli
13-cis-retinoic acid
Extremely high risk for birth defects
- atherosclerosis = fatty substances/debris deposited on anterior walls
- arteriosclerosis = arteries lose elasticity (HTN/high BP may develp)
accumulation of blood in the pleural cavity (the space between the lungs and the walls of the chest)
The __________ may restart or regulate the heartbeat.
AED Device
What should you do for poisonings?
Call Poison Control
A network of community resources and medical personnel that provides emergency care to victims of injury or sudden illness.
EMS system
An unacceptable internal impulse is attributed to an external source
Projection - immature
Large group of people is followed over 10 years. Every 2 years, it is determined who develops heart disease and who does not. What type of study is this?
Branchial cleft derivatives
1st cleft = external auditory meatus
2nd through 4th clefts = Temporary cervical sinuses
S2,3,4 dermatome =
keep the shit off the floor
- distended neck veins
- pink spetum
- rapid heart rate
- normal to high BP
- abdominal distention
- edema of the lower extremities
- cyanosis
- diff breathing lying flat
- dyspnea=shortness of breath
- increases respiratory rate
- anxiety
- mild/severe confusion
botulinum food poisoning is caused by what source?
Canned food
Throw a buoyant object such as; water jug, flutter board, water noodle, etc. and reassure the victim to shore.
What is Self Aid?
Emergency treatment one applies to oneself
Impacted fracture
One fragment driven into the bone of the other fragmentie. jumping off a 2 story building
What Army manual covers first aid for soldiers?
FM 21-11
Separation of feelings from ideas and events
Isolation - immature
Avoidance of awareness of some painful reality
Denial - immature
Cleft palate =
failure of fusion of the lateral palatine processes, the nasal septum, and/or the median palatine process
Airway cells
Type I (97%)
Type II (3%) form the surfactant
A lecitihin, sphingomyelin ratio of >2.0 in amniotic fluid is indicative of fetal lung maturity
more than likely will not get in trouble in court
to draw tight or taut, esp. to the utmost tension; stretch to the full
Object in Eye
First Aid: Blink and tears may flush out, RInse with clean running water, If not better take to doctor
With an open fracture, what should you do first?
Stop the bleeding
What is a heat injury?
General deydration of the body brought on by loss of water and salt through activity in the heat.
Developmental milestones - school age - 6 - 11 years
Reads, understands death, Development of conscience (super-ego), same sex friends, ID with same sex parent
Brain lesions - Arcuate fasiculus
Conduction aphasia - poor repetition with good comprehension, fluent speech
24 yo male develops testicular cancer.
Metastatic spread occurs by what route?
Para-aortic lymph nodes (recall descent of testes during development)
Frostbite: Skin exposed to cold weather and ice crystals form in tissue
Symptoms: Numb feeling, Gray white patches on skin,
First Aid: Remove wet clothing and wrap in warm clothing, Do not warm if it may freeze again, If mild put exposed skin next to warm area armpit belly
What 7 things resemble the flu?
CO poisoning, Lime Disease, Heat exhaustion, Black Widow Bite, Brown Recluse Bite, Food poisoning, West Nile
What should be done first for an open fracture?
Stop the bleeding.
Process whereby a warded off idea or feeling is replaced by an (unconciously derived)emphasis on its opposite
Reaction formation - immature
Penlight in patient's right eye produces bilateral pupillary constriction. When moved to the left eye, there is paradoxical bilateral pupillary dilation. What is the defect?
Atrophy of the left optic nerve
- thrombus = blood clot
- embolus = moving blood clot
- hymorrhage = excess bleeding of brain
- compression = head injury
- tumor = uncontrolled cells in brain
- anurism = buldging of blood vessels
What is the basic proven principle in splinting fractures?
"Splint them where they lie"
Name the eight steps in evaluating a casualty
Check for responsiveness
Check for breathing
Check for bleeding
Check for pulse
Check for shock
Check for fractures
Check for burns
Check for a head injury
How should heat stroke be treated?
Immerse the casualty in the coldest water available and remove clothing and wet entire body while fanning, transport to the nearest medical facility.
State the three methods of controlling bleeding.
Direct Pressure, Pressure Points, and Use of a Tourniquet.
Before you attach pad to the victim you..
You dry the chest dry
What are the lifesaving steps? (The ABC's of medical treatment)
Open the airway and restore breathing Stop the bleeding / Protect the wound Prevent shock
What are the four life saving steps?
Open the Airway and restore breathing and hearbeat
Stop the Bleeding
Dress the wound
Control for shock
When may resuscitation measures be stopped?
When a doctor tells you to stopWhen you are relieved by othersWhen you can't physically continueWhen the casualty starts breathing on her own.
65 yo man is diagnosed with incurable metastatic pancreatic adenocarcinoma. his family asks you, the doctor, not to tell the patient. What do you do?
Assess whether telling patient will negatively affect his health. if not,tell him.
What should be done after a tourniquet is applied to a casualty?
Mark a "T" on casualty's forehead
If a casualty were suspected of having a neck/spinal injury or severe head trauma, which method would you use for opening an airway?
The jaw thrust technique, because in most cases it can be done without extending the neck
Describe the signs and symptoms of frostbite?
Loss of sensation or numb feeling in any part of the body.Sudden whitening of the skin in the affected area, followed by a momentary tingling feeling.Redness of skin in light skinned soldiers; grayish coloring in dark skinned soldiers.Blisters.
C . botulinum what is it caused by
dented canned foods left over time
What are the two types of artificial respiration?
Mouth to mouth, and the back pressure arm lift method.
What is the first step in the first aid of a burn victim?
Remove the casualty from the source of the burn
Varying shapes
Basophils, eosinophils, neutrophils
abnormally high fever.
Name for many strokes
L1 dermatome =
Inguinal ligament
Thenar / Hypothenar muscles
the condition associated with circulatory collapse, when the arterial b.p is too low to maintain adequate supply of blood to tissue.
Guilty feelings alleviated by unsolicited generosity toward others
C3 dermnatome =
High turtleneck shirt
AED acrtonym
automated external defibrillator- treats arythmia through defibrillation.
HIPAA regulations allow protected information to be given to __________ in an emergency.
EMS Personnel
Disease prevention
Primary = prevent disease occurence
Secondary = early detection
Tertiary = reduce disability from disease
Athetosis =
writhing movements of fingers

Basal ganglia lesion
Thenar eminence =
Opponens pollicis
Abductor pollicis bravis
Flexor pollicis brevis
CNS phagocytes. Mesodermal in origin. HIV infected microglia fuse to form multinucleated giant cells in the CNS
- respiratory distress= injury, asthma, hyperventalation, anaphylactic shock
- respiratory arrest= electric shock, drowning, suffucation, heart attack, stroke, drug overdose, head & chest injury
A substance that causes injury, illness, or death, especially by chemical means.
Symptoms of Hyperglycemia
-Dry skin and tongue-Flushed face-Fruity Breath-High Blood Glucose Level-Stupor-Weak, rapid pulse
Whats the active ingredient of aspirin?
Salycilic Acid
Malpractice 4 D's
Dereliction of duty
Direct cause of said damage
T Lymphocyte
Cellular immune response, matures in thymus.
A/C area of hypothalmus
Anterior = A/C (cooling)
what does hiv stand for
human immunodificiency virus
HIV Symptoms 2: HIV mutates and becomes more pathogenic, in other words stronger and more varied, leading to more T helper cell destruction
Salmonella what is it caused by?
uncooked meat
First Aid: Sit up and lean forward, Pinch nostril, Cool wet cloth to face If severe treat for shock and call for help
How many pressure points, which can be used to control bleeding with fingers, thumbs or hands are there on the human body?
Developmental milestones - toddler - 24 - 36
Core Gender identity
Process whereby avoided ideas and feelings are transferred to some neutral person or object
Displacement - immature
Teres minor muscle =
adducts and medially rotates arm
Collagen type II
carTwolage - cartilage, vitreous body, nucleus pulposus
- uncomfortable squeezing
- fullness of pain in center of chest
- pain spreads neck, jaw, shoulders
- dizzy/faint
- nausea
- shortness of breath
Furthermore, the CDC goes on to say that 67% of males with the HIV infection contracted the disease through homosexual activity.
Spider Bite
First Aid: Wash area and apply cold pack. Seek medical attention for symptoms of nausea, vomiting, stomach pain, breathing problem or if wound becomes swollen and tender. Or for fever and chills
2 or more bones that come together are separated
An illness or injury that impairs a victim's ability to circulate ocygenated blood to all the parts of his or her body.
Life-threatening Emergency
Partially remaining at a more childish level of development
Fixation - immature
Branchial Arch 6 derivatives
Muscles: all intrinsic muscles of larynx (except cricothryoid)
CN X (recurrent laryngeal branch)
Spleen arises from
Dorsal mesentery but is supplied by artery of foregut
- incision
- avulsion
- laceration
- abrasion
- puncture
: a condition in which air or other gas is present in the pleural cavity and which occurs spontaneously as a result of disease or injury of lung tissue, rupture of air-filled pulmonary cysts, or puncture of the chest wall or is induced as a therapeutic measure to collapse the lung
First aid def
assitance or treat of given person for any injury or sudden illness before the arrival of qualified medical expert, improvisation required.
While giving mouth-to-mouth the patient's stomach bulges. What does this indicate?
Air is entering stomach, reposition head and continue
Structural theory of mind
Id = Primal urges, sex, and aggression
Superego = Moral values, conscience
Ego = Mediator between unconscious mind and real world
Brain lesions - frontal lobe
Personality changes - deficits in concentration, judgement, inhibitions
- apply dir pressure
- elevation
- press point
- tourniquet
- check for: nerve/artery damage
Name two types of rescue breathing
Mouth to mouth Mouth to nose
Where is a tourniquet applied?
Around the limb, between the wound and the heart. Placed 2-4in above the wound but never directly on a joint.
Describe two types of emergencies that require first aid.
1) Sudden Illness- a physical condition that requires immediate medical attention. heart attack, stroke2)Injury-damage that occurs when the body is subjected to an external force, such as a blow, a fall, a collision, an electrical current or temperature extremes. Broken bone, fall
Nerves passing through cavernous sinuses
CN III, IV, V1, V2 and VI
linear - crack on skull
communited - sm bone fragments
depressed - 1 pc bone not intact
basal - base of skull
To respond to an emergency telephone call you should __________.
Follow office guidelines by either referencing the triage manual or notifying the physician right away.
How can you treat poison from plants?
Soap & water before it absorbs
Postive predictive value
# of true positives / # of people who tested positive
Meiosis II is arrested in METaphase until

An egg met a sperm
Muscle Cramps: When a muscle contracts and does not relax
First Aid: Rest, gentle massage and stretch, rehydrate. Prevention: Stretching, hydration,, warm down
Explain a coral snake and how to treat
many teeth, neurotoxic"red on yellow kill a on black venom lack"Wrap body part with bandage and tie against body to immobilize
What is unique about type "O" blood?
It is the universal donor. Everyone can use it.
Describe the signs of heat cramps:
Muscle cramps of the legs, arms or abdomen, excessive sweating.
Child presents with cleft lip.
Which embryologic process failed?
Fusion of maxillary and medial nasal processes
When applying splint, where should the bandages be tied?
The bandages should be tied with knots against the splint
Why should wounds be treated as soon as possible?
To control bleeding and protect the wound from contamination by germs.
What are the signs and symptoms of fractures?
Pain at the site, discoloration and deformity.
Stand clear of what when turned on?
AED you can get shocked if too close
What is the first aid procedure for a white phosphorous casualty?
Smother the flame by submerging the affected area in water or pack with mud. Then remove the particles by brushing or picking them out
Name 4 common points for checking the pulse.
1. side of the neck (cartoid)
2. groin (femoral)
3. wrist (radial)
4. ankle (posterial tibial)
When are the only times a tourniquet shoudl be applied?
When an arm or leg has been cut off or when bleeding cannot be stopped by a pressure dressing
Class III
Buerger's disease
thromboangiitis obliterans

thrombosing vasculitis of small and medium peripheral arteries and veins

see with heavy smokers
Heart sounds

Holosystolic murmur.
Trx: temporal arteritis
high-dose steroids
diuretic released from atria

triggered by increased BP

lowers blood volume through action on kidneys and causes vascular relaxation
a wave=
a wave––atrial contraction.
Class IA
torsades de pointes due to ↑
QT interval)
Antihypertensive drugs
name the

ACE inhibitors
Class II
can cause dyslipidemia.
Wolff-Parkinson-White syndrome
ventricular pre-excitation syndrome, an accessory conduction pathway from atria to ventricles (bundle of Kent) that bypasses AV node,
ventricles partiallly depolarize earlier -> characteristic delta wave,
can lead to reentry current -> SVT
hyaline thickening or proliferative changes in small arteries in essential HTN or DM

hyperplastic: "onion-skinning" in malignant HTN (in kidneys, called malignant nephrosclerosis)
hyaline: hyaline thickening of walls (in kidneys, benign nephrosclerosis)
aortic and pulmonary valve colsure
Hemorrhagic Pericarditis
caused by TB, maliganacy
Antihypertensive drugs
name the

Congenital cardiac defect associations

Down syndrome
which Angina
thrombosis but no necrosis
Class III
pulmonary fibrosis,
corneal deposits, hepatotoxicity,
skin deposits resulting in photodermatitis, neurologic effects,
constipation, cardiovascular effects (bradycardia,
heart block, CHF), hypothyroidism/
What Cardiac Defects are assocaited with Down Syndrome?
EARLY diastole, common in dilated ventricle (NL in children and pregnant women)
PAN (polyarteritis nodosa)
immune complex-mediated transmural vasculitis w/fibrinoid necrosis

Hep B seropositivity in 30%, multiple aneurysms and constrictions on arteriogram

involves renal and visceral vessels, NOT pulmonary aa
microscopic polyangitis
like wergners but lacks granulomas

AV block 1st degree
prolonged PR interval

polyarteritis nodosa
immune complex mediated transmural vasculitis - with fibrinoid necrosis

usually renal and visceral vessels - spares pulmonary

often hep B seropositive

multiple aneurysms and constriction
cushing reaction
increased intracranial pressure -> constricts arterioles -> hypertension -> reflex bradycardia
Class III
Sotalol––torsades de pointes, excessive β block;
Which Antihypertensive drug has this adverse effect

Severe orthostatic hypotension, blurred vision
Bacterial endocarditis

1. Acute––S. aureus (high virulence). Large
vegetations on previously normal valves.
Rapid onset.
Class IB
Useful in acute ventricular
arrhythmias (especially post-MI) and in digitalis induced arrhythmias.
how to measure pulmonary capillary
wedge pressure
Swan-Ganz catheter.
c wave=
c wave––RV contraction (tricuspid valve
bulging into atrium).
Predisposes to
renal failure,
aortic dissection.
late cyanosis
Left-to-right shunts “blue kids”

1. VSD
2. ASD
3. PDA
Describe Hypertrophic cardiomyopathy
hypertrophy often asymmetric and involving the intraventricular septum

50% of cases are familial and are inherited as an autosomal dominant trait

cause of sudden death in young athletes

Walls of LV are thickened and chamber becomes banana shaped on x-ray; diastolic dysfxn ensues
causes of renal HTN
disorders of renal parenchyma

unilateral renal artery stenosis (can be from atherosclerosis or unilateral fibromuscular dysplasia); atrophy of affected kidney (can be surgically corrected)
which blood vessel accounts for most of TPR
primary pauci-immune crescentic glomerulonephritis
vasculitis limited to kidney

pauci-immune means paucity of antibodies
Fibrous Pericarditis
caused by uremia, MI, rheumatic fever
Which organ receives the largest share of cardiac output
Marfan's syndrome - congenital heart defects
aortic insufficiency
Adverse effects of
Antihypertensive drugs

nasal stuffiness,
Phases–left ventricle:
Rapid filling––
period just after
mitral valve opening
Tx for Ventricular fibrillation
immediate CPR and defibrillation.
describe Torsades des pointes
Ventricular tachycardia characterized by shifting sinusoidal waveforms on ECG.
90% of hypertension is 1° (essential) and related to ↑ CO or ↑ TPR; remaining 10%
mostly 2° to renal disease. Malignant hypertension is severe and rapidly progressing
describe Wolff-Parkinson-White syndrome
Accessory conduction pathway from atria to ventricle (bundle of Kent), bypassing AV node.
Myocardial action potential

Phase 3
rapid repolarization––massive K+ efflux due to opening of voltage- gated slow K+ channels and closure of voltage-gated Ca2+ channels.
Myocardial action potential

Phase 0
rapid upstroke––voltage-gated Na+ channels open.
What are Aschoff bodies
granuloma with giant cells
Autoregulation of blood flow

Local metabolites: CO2
Vegetations develop on both sides of valve (→ mitral valve stenosis) but do not embolize. Seen in lupus.
What pathological findings are associated with Buerger's Disease?

How is it treated?
intermittent claudication, superficial nodular phlebitis, cold sensitivity (Raynauds phenomenon), severe pain in affected part

may lead to gangrene

treated by cessation of smoking
On the ECG, atrial repolarization is masked by what?
QRS complex
What states increase viscosity?

How is viscosity related to resistance?

What is the biggest factor determining resistance?
polycythemia, hyperproteinemic states (e.g., Multiple Myeloma), hereditary spherocytosis

viscosity is directly proportional to resistance

radius; resistance is inversely proportional to the radius to the 4th power
malignant HTN
marked increase in Diastolic BP, focal retinal hemorrhages and papilledema, LVH, and LV failure

-most often in young black males, tho happens in <5% of pts w/high BP
What drug increases digoxin toxicity
displaces digoxin from tissue-binding sites
list 2 class IV antiarrhythmics.

target tissue?
Verapamil, diltiazem

primarily affect AV nodal cells.
Decrease conduction velocity, increase ERP, PR interval
What Ca channel blocker is used in isolated systolic HTN?
the acute marginal artery is supplies the
right ventricle
takaysu arteritis
pulseless disease - weak pulses in upper extremities

granulomatous thickening of aortic arch and/or proximal great vessels

see increased ESR

asian females < 40yo

FAN MY SKIN On Wednesday - fever arthritis nighweats myalgia skin nodules occular disturbance weak pulses
Coarctation of aorta

weak femoral pulses on
physical exam.
which arteries
Disease of elastic arteries and large and medium-sized muscular arteries
Class IA
used for
Affect both atrial and ventricular arrhythmias especially reentrant and ectopic supraventricular and ventricular tachycardia.
Dilated cardiomyopathy what type of dysfunction
Systolic dysfunction ensues.
a pathological condition in humans caused by an overdose of quinine or its natural source, cinchona bark
cinchonism or quinism
Janeway lesions
non-tender, small erythematous or haemorrhagic macules or nodules in the palms or soles,

are pathognomonic of infective endocarditis.

The pathology is due to a type III hypersensitivity reaction.
pulsus paradoxus
is an exaggeration of the normal variation in the pulse during the inspiratory phase of respiration, in which the pulse becomes weaker as one inhales and stronger as one exhales
Calcium channel blockers
Block voltage-dependent L-type calcium channels of cardiac and smooth muscle and thereby reduce muscle contractility.
Preload and afterload
wrt dilators
Venous dilators (e.g., nitroglycerin) ↓ preload.

Vasodilators (e.g., hydralazine) ↓ afterload.
Carotid sheath structures
3 structures inside: VAN.
1. Internal jugular Vein (lateral)
2. Common carotid Artery (medial)
3. Vagus Nerve (posterior)
35-year-old man has high blood
pressure in his arms and low
pressure in his legs.
Coarctation of the aorta.
Class II
toxicity in general
Impotence, exacerbation of asthma, cardiovascular effects (bradycardia,
AV block,
CNS effects (sedation, sleep alterations).
May mask the signs of hypoglycemia.
cause of Serous Pericarditis
SLE, rheumatoid arthritis, infection, uremia.
cause of Fibrinous Pericarditis
Uremia, MI (Dressler's syndrome), rheumatic fever.
Describe the primary endocardial diseases.
1. Endocardail fibroelastosis - diffuse thickening of the endocardium only by proliferation of elastic an collagen fibers; occurs in first 2 yrs of life and is fatal; us. associated with congenital heart defects

2. Endomyocardial fibrosis (Davie's disease) - thickening of endocardium and myocardium by collagenous scar; affect either or both ventricles; identical to Loefflers endocarditis

3. Carcinoid Heart Disease - R sided endocardial proliferation and fibrosis -> tricuspid insufficiency, stenosis and/or pulmonic stenosis
How does Bacterial Endocarditis Present?
Bacteria FROM JANE

Roth's Spots (round white spots on retina surrouded by hemmorhage)
Osler's nodes (tender raised lesions on fingers/toes)
Janeway lesions (small erythromatous lesions on palms or soles)
Nail Bed Hemorrhage
Raynaud's disease
decreased blood flow to the skin due to arteriolar vasospasm in response to cold temp or emotional stress. Often in fingers and toes.

Called Raynaud's phenomenon when secondary to a mixed connective tissue disease, SLE, or CREST
Tricuspid area

where is it?
what pathologies can be heard during systole? diastole?
Left sternal border (rib 4)

pansystolic murmur due to tricuspid regurgitation and VSD

Diastolic murmur due to tricuspid stenosis and ASD
first line tx for HTN in pregnancy?
Hydralazine with methyldopa
Janeway lesions

Osler's nodes

Roth's spots
Janeway: small erythematous lesions on palm or sole); due to septic microemboli to cutaneous blood vessels

Osler's: tender raised lesions on finger or toe pads; deposition of immune complex

Roth's spots: round white spots on retina surrounded by hemorrhage; immune complex mediated vasculitis
Pulsus paradoxus (Kussmaul pulse)
exaggerated decrease in pulse during inspiration

see in severe cardiac tamponade, asthma, obstructive sleep apnea, pericarditis, croup
special considerations for using

Use with β-blockers to prevent reflex tachycardia, diuretic to block salt retention.
MI markers

LDH rises
in 10 hours

peaks at 2-3 days

gone in 7
Calcium channel blockers
Clinical use
Hypertension, angina, arrhythmias (not nifedipine), Prinzmetal's angina, Raynaud's.
Syphilitic heart
3° syphilis disrupts the vasa vasora of the aorta
with consequent dilation of the aorta and valve ring
Often affects the aortic root and calcification of
ascending arch of the aorta.
What are the characteristics of Dilated (congestive) Cardiomypathy?
most common cardiomyopathy (90% cases)

etiologies include Alcohol abuse, Beriberi, Coxsackie disease, Cocaine use, Chaga's disease, Doxorubicin toxicity, peripartum cardiomyopathy and hemochromatosis

the heart dilates and looks like a baloon in chest x ray

systolic dysfxn ensues
Describe Polyarteritis nodosa and the findings associat with it.
characterized by necrotizing immune complex inflammation of medium-sized muscular arteries, typically involving renal and visceral vessels; lesions are of different ages

Hep B seropositivity in 30% of patients
multiple aneurysms and constrictions on arteriograms
NOT assocaited with ANCA
myocardial O2 demand increases by what 4 factors?
increased afterload (aortic pressure)
increased contractility
increased HR
increased heart size (increase wall tension)
How does rheumatic heart disease affect the valve in the early phase? late phase?
early: mitral valve prolapse

late: mitral stenosis
Describe the findings of cardiac tamponade
Beck's triad: hypotension, increased venous pressure (JVD), distant heart sounds.

increased HR
pulsus pardoxus
fixed splitting
atrial septal defect - L to R shunt increases pressure of the right ventricle - delaying closure regardless of breath

expiration | | |
S1 A2 P2
inspiration | | |
Total anomalous pulmonary venous return (TAPVR)
pulmonary veins drain into right heart
Red (hemorrhagic) infarcts occur in
loose tissues with collaterals, such as lungs, liver, intestine, or following reperfusion.
Dilated cardiomyopathy CXR
Heart dilates and looks like a balloon on
chest x-ray.
Contractility (and SV) ↑ with:
1. Catecholamines (↑ activity of Ca2+pump
in sarcoplasmic reticulum)
2. ↑ intracellular calcium
3. ↓ extracellular sodium
4. Digitalis (↑ intracellular Na+, resulting
in ↑ Ca2+)
5.SV ↑ in anxiety, exercise,
and pregnancy.
ID the ECG

Progressive lengthening of the PR interval until a beat is “dropped” (a P wave not
followed by a QRS complex). Usually asymptomatic.
2nd degree
Mobitz type I
What are the causes and findings associated with Hemorrahgic pericarditis?
caused by TB, malignancy (melanoma)

blood tinged exudate, pericardial pain, friction rub, ECG changes(diffuse ST elevations in all leads),pulsus paradoxus, distant heart sounds

can resolve w/o scarring or lead to chronic adhesive or chronic constrictive pericarditis
Where does the Pacemaker action potential occur?
in the SA and AV nodes
Clinical use for class II antiarrythmics?
V-tach, SVT, slowing ventricular rate during a-fib and a flutter
congenital rubella - congenital heart defects
septal defect, PDA, pulmonary artery stenosis
Describe this ECG

Ventricular fibrillation
A completely erratic rhythm with no identifiable waves.
what vessels account for most of
total peripheral resistance
and how
→ regulate capillary flow.
4 Starling forces determine fluid movement through capillary membranes:
1. Pc = capillary pressure––moves fluid out

2. Pi= interstitial fluid pressure––moves fluid in

3. πc = plasma colloid osmotic pressure––moves fluid in

4. πi = interstitial fluid colloid osmotic Pressure –moves fluid out
What causes Transposition of the Great Vessels?
Failure of the aorticopulmonary septum to spiral.
3rd degree AV block

What do you treat it with?
atria and ventricles beat independently of each other

atrial rate faster than ventricular rate

Trx w/pacemaker
which part of heart wall is more vulnerable to ischemia?
subendocardium due to fewer collaterals and higher pressures
CHF what is the cause of

(nutmeg liver)
↑ central venous pressure
→↑ resistance to portal flow.
Rarely, leads to “cardiac
SNS acts by what neurotransmitter and receptor in the heart and CV system?
Norepinephrine acts at B1 receptor in the heart a1 receptors in vascular SM B2 in Skeletal bvs
What is Rheumatic Fever? What does it cause?
a consequence of pharyngeal infection with group A B-hemolytic streoptococci

late sequelae include rheumatic Heart disease which affects heart valves -mitral>aortic>>tricuspid (high pressure valves are affected the most)

immune mediated, not direct effect of bacteria
Most common primary cardiac tumor in adults? location? associated sx?

most common primary cardiac tumor in children? associated disease?
adults: myxoma in the left atrium, associated with multiple syncopal episode

children: Rhabdomyomas; associated with tuberous sclerosis
SA and AV node depolarization rate is controlled by
ACh decreases rate -> decreased HR

catecholamines increase rate -> increases HR

sympathetics increase the chance If is open
CHF what is the cause of

Pulmonary edema, paroxysmal
nocturnal dyspnea
LV failure →↑ pulmonary
venous pressure → pulmonary venous distention and transudation of fluid.
Riddle me this: What is Eisenmenger's Syndrome?
Uncerrected VSD, ASD, or PDA leads to progressive pulmonary hypertension.

As pulmonary resistance increases, the shunt changes from L-->R, to R-->L, which causes late cyanosis (clubbing and polycythemia)
In AV node block 3rd degree (complete)

which is faster
The atrial rate is faster than the ventricular rate. i.e P waves are faster than QRS
What are the L to R shunts?

What do they cause?

What can they progress to?

late cyanosis ("blue kids")

Eisenmenger's syndrome (arteriolar thickening/vascular hypertrophy from increased pulm resistancce -> progressive pulm HTN -> shunt reverses to R to L -> late cyanosis--clubbing and polycythemia)
/ 253

Leave a Comment ({[ getComments().length ]})

Comments ({[ getComments().length ]})


{[ comment.comment ]}

View All {[ getComments().length ]} Comments
Ask a homework question - tutors are online