EOC ENGLISH I LOGIC Flashcards

Terms Definitions
Accuracy Of Sources
This includes direct relation to the topic, currency of information, author's expertise, reputation of publication, and inclusion of supporting information.
Ad Hominem
This is replying to an argument by attacking or appealing to the person making the claim rather than by addressing the argument.
Advertisement
This is a public announcement promoting a product or service.
Analogy
This is a comparison based on a similarity between things that are otherwise dissimilar.
Analyze
This is to separate a whole into its parts.
Appeal To Authority
This is a persuasive technique in which speaker mentions an important event or person to lend importance or credibility to his argument.
Argument
This involves one or more reasons presented by a speaker or a writer to lead the audience or reader to a logical conclusion.
Argument
The logical, systematic presentation of reasoning and supporting evidence that proves the validity of a statement or position.
Argumentation
This is the kind of writing that tries to persuade readers to accept an author's opinions.
Assumption
This is a fact or idea which an author considers to be true without arguing for it. It may be stated or only implied.
Author's Purpose
This is the reason for creating written work.
Bandwagon
This is a persuasive technique in which the speaker tries to convince his audience that a product is good because "everyone" is buying it.
Believability
This is the ability to trust something as true or credible.
Bias
This is a prejudice that is leaning toward a positive or negative judgment on something; a personal judgment or opinion about a particular person, position, or thing.
Bibliographic Reference
This is a note or citation to a publication, book or article, etc.
Card Stacking Technique
This is a propaganda technique and the term comes from stacking a deck of cards in your favor. It is used to slant a message. Key words or unfavorable statistics may be omitted in an ad or commercial, leading to a series of half-truths.
Categorical Claim
This rhetorical strategy contains a statement that is an arguable interpretation of the facts. It is present when people can disagree about the definition of the category to which the object or person belongs.
Cause And Effect
This is the relationship between two or more events in which one event brings about another.
Central Argument
This is the dominant and controlling argument.
Central Idea
The key point made in a written passage; the chief topic.
Central Message
This is the theme of a story, novel, poem, or drama that readers can apply to life.
Compare
This is a method of relating how two or more elements or texts are SIMILAR.
Compare And Contrast
This is a method of relating two or more objects in a piece of work.
Comprehension
This is the process of understanding the meaning of a text.
Conclusion
This wraps up a piece of writing and reminds readers of the thesis.
Consumer
This is the customer who purchases goods and services, not for resale, but for his or her own use.
Contrast
This is a method of relating how two or more elements or texts are DIFFERENT.
Counter Argument
This is an argument that makes an opposing point to another argument. It expresses the view of a person who disagrees with your position.
Critique
This is a written or spoken evaluation of what is and is not effective in a literary work.
Deductive Logic
This is the process of forming a specific consequence from general observations.
Describing Words
Adjectives and adverbs may be expressed in three ways to show comparisons. The first is the positive degree which describes one thing. Next is the comparative degree which is used when comparing two things. This is formed by adding "-er" to the word or by adding "more" before the word. The third degree is the superlative degree which is used to compare three or more things. This is formed by adding "-est" to the word or by using "most" in front of the word. Some words are irregular and do not follow these rules.
Detail
This is a piece of information that is used to support a main idea.
Editorial
This is an article in a publication or a commentary on television or radio expressing the opinion of its editors, publishers, station, or network.
Either-Or Fallacy Technique
This propaganda technique is also called "black-and-white thinking" because only two choices are given. You are either for something or against it; there is no middle ground or shades of gray. It is used to polarize issues, and negates all attempts to find a common ground.
Emotional Appeal
This is a type of persuasive technique in which writers or speakers appeal to fear, anger, or joy to sway their audience.
Entertain
The goal is to tell a story or describe characters, places, or events.
Essay
This is a short, nonfiction work about a particular subject.
Evaluate
This is placing a value or rank on a piece of writing or speaking.
Evidence
This is information that supports a generalization.
Experience
This is the name for what is gathered through the general process of living, or for the process itself.
Expository Text
This is a mode of writing whose purpose is to convey information or to explain and establish the validity of an idea in a logical, clear, and concrete manner.
External Conflict
This is when a character has a problem with another character, nature, society, or fate.
Fact
This is a statement that can be proved to be true.
Fallacy
This is a false or mistaken idea or statement.
False Analogy Technique
This is a propaganda technique in which two things that may or may not really be similar are portrayed as being similar. When examining the comparison, you must ask yourself how similar the items are. Usually there is simply not enough evidence available to support the comparison.
Faulty Cause And Effect
This propaganda technique suggests that because B follows A, A must cause B. Remember, just because two events or two sets of data are related does not necessarily mean that one caused the other to happen. It is important to evaluate data carefully before jumping to a wrong conclusion.
Fiction
This is writing that tells about imaginary characters and events.
Generalization
This is forming a broad concept based on specific instances. Inductive reasoning
Implied Meaning
This is a suggested, but not stated, definition.
Inductive Logic
This is the process of making a generalization based on a specific observation.
Infer
This is to get a conclusion from the facts or context; to figure out what is being implied by reading between the lines.
Inference
This is reading between the lines. It is taking something that you read and putting it together with something that you already know to make sense of what you read.
Inform
This is to give information.
Informational Text
This is a type of real-world writing that presents information that is necessary or valuable to the reader.
Inquiry
This is an examination into the facts; research questioning.
Intent
This is the overriding purpose of a speech or written work; for example, to entertain, to inform,to persuade.
Internal Conflict
This is when a character has a problem within him or herself.
Interpretation
This is the explanation of the significance or meaning of a work.
Leading Question
This is a rhetorical strategy that uses language in a way to imply or bring about a particular answer.
Letter
This is a written communication or message addressed to a reader or readers that is usually sent by mail.
Limited View
This is a point of view, in which the narrator is outside the story, reveals the thoughts of only one character, and yet refers to that characters as 'he' or 'she'.
Loaded Language
These are words that have strong emotional associations.
Logic
This is the reasoning used to reach a conclusion based on a set of assumptions, or it may be defined as the science of reasoning, proof, thinking, or inference.
Logical Fallacy
This is a part of an argument that is flawed and makes the argument invalid, an error in reasoning.
Media
This is the main means of mass communication.
Name Calling
This propaganda technique consists of attaching a negative label to a person or a thing. People engage in this type of behavior when they are trying to avoid supporting their own opinion with facts. Rather than explain what they believe in, they prefer to try to tear their opponent down.
Nonfiction
This is factual writing that presents and explains ideas or that tells about real people, places, objects, or events.
Nonfiction
This is prose written with the primary purpose of explaining, arguing, or describing in an objective, straightforward manner. It includes such genres as 'biography' and 'autobiography'.
Nonprint Information
This can be found in resources other than written materials.
Nuance
A subtle difference in meaning.
Opinion
This is a statement that reflects a writer's belief about a topic , and it cannot be proved.
Organization
In writing, this is the trait of order, structure and presentation of information; It is the writing trait which measures logical sequencing of ideas, details, or events.
Outcome
This is how a problem is solved or what happens at the end of a story.
Peer Pressure
This persuasive technique seeks to influence a person to think, feel, or act in a certain way by giving or withholding acceptance into a group that shares similarities such as age and social background. It persuades by appealing to one's desire to fit in.
Perspective
This is a writer's point of view about a particular subject, and is often influenced by their beliefs or by events in their lives.
Persuade
This is to convince.
Persuasive Appeal
This is a type of writing or speech that attempts to convince a reader to think or act in a particular manner.
Persuasive Techniques
These are techniques used to convince. They include repetition, sentence variety, understatement, and overstatement.
Persuasive Text
This attempts to convince a reader to adopt a particular opinion or course of action.
Plain Folks Technique
This is a propaganda technique that uses a folksy approach to convince us to support someone or something. These ads depict people with ordinary looks doing ordinary activities.
Plot
This is the series of events that happen in a literary work.
Point Of View
This is the perspective from which a story is told.
Predict
This is to declare or say in advance.
Prediction
This is the act of forecasting something that may (or may not) occur later.
Premise
This is an assumption or hypothesis which begins a logical argument.
Primary Source
This is an original document or firsthand account.
Propaganda
This is information that is spread for the purpose of promoting some cause.
Propaganda
This is an extreme form of persuasion intended to prejudice and incite the reader or listener to action either for or against a particular cause or position.
Propaganda Techniques
These are methods and approaches used to spread ideas that further a cause - a political, commercial, religious, or civil cause.
Public
A ________ document is one that is available freely in the media, or which can be requested from a government or other agency.
Purpose
This is an author's intention, reason, or drive for writing the piece.
Reference
This is a source used to find information.
Relevant
This is an adjective that implies a thing closely relates to or is on the same subject matter; appropriate to the situation.
Research
This is the process of gathering, evaluating, and organizing information.
Research Topic
This is a limited topic within a general topic that can be adequately covered within the length of a particular assignment.
Secondary Source
This is a commentary on an original document or firsthand account.
Snob Appeal
This is a propaganda technique used to make a person desire to be a part of an elite, upper group and not part of the masses.
Source
A person, book, document, website or record that provides information.
Speech
This is a talk or public address.
Stereotype
These are simplified images that narrowly define certain groups of people.
Structure
This refers to a writer's arrangement or overall design of a literary work. It is the way words, sentences, and paragraphs are organized to create a complete work.
Subplot
This is a secondary plot in a work of literature that either explains or helps to develop the main plot.
Support
to strengthen or substantiate an argument or idea by providing facts, details, examples and other information
Supporting Evidence
These are the facts or details that back up a main idea, theme, or thesis.
Supporting Sentence
This in a paragraph helps to clarify, describe, explain, or enhance the main idea of a paragraph.
Technical Writing
This is writing that communicates specific information about a particular subject, craft, or occupation.
Testimonial
This is a persuasive technique in which someone will testify that he used or bought an advertised product which did indeed help, so it will work for the reader or audience, too.
Text
This is the main body of a piece of writing or any of the various forms in which writing exists, such as a book, a poem, an article, or a short story.
Thesis
In expository writing, this is the main point or central idea that a writer states and then endeavors to prove valid by means of a systematic argument.
Thesis Statement
This is the way in which the main idea of a literary work is expressed, usually as a generalization that is supported with concrete evidence.
Tone
This is the attitude that an author takes toward the audience, the subject, or a character.
Topic
This is the specific part of a subject that is dealt with in a research paper or in an essay.
Valid
This is a statement that is sound or just, well-founded.
Viewpoint
This is an expression of an opinion or standpoint.
Word Choice
This is another way of saying "diction." This can help reveal a) the tone of the work, b) connotations of meaning, and/or c) his style of writing.
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