Praxis II (0435) Oceanography and Atmosphere Flashcards

Atlantic Ocean
Terms Definitions
Wavelength
distance between wave top and wave top
Wave period
the time between the passing of two successive waves
Continental Shelf
a gently sloping, shallow area of the ocean floor that extends outward from the shoreline to the continental slope.
Continental Slope
the steeply-sloping area that connects the continental shelf and the deep-ocean floor.
continental rise
the gently sloping surface at the base of the continental slope
seamount
an undersea volcano peak that is at least 1,000 m above the ocean floor
abyssal plains
the flat, leveled parts of the ocean floor
Guyot
submerged, flat-topped seamount
Mid-ocean ridges
a large system of underwater mountains that have a deep crack, called a rift vally running through their center
Ocean trenches
long, narrow, deep parts of the seafloor formed where a subducting slab bend down into Earth.
70%
how much of the Earth covered with saltwater?
North Pacific, South Pacific, North Atlantic, South Atlantic, Indian, Arctic, Antarctic
What are the seven major oceans?
Hydrogen and oxygen and 96.5%
What is pure water made of and how much do these two elements make up the ocean?
salinity
Grams of salt in 1,000 grams of sea water
3.5%
What is the average salinity of ocean water?
Surface layer (and mixed layer), thermocline, and deep dark, cold ocean floor
What are the three layers of ocean water?
seamounts
underwater mountains formed by underwater hot spots.
An island arc
curving chain of volcanic islands.
Carbon cycle
CO2 is dissolved at high latitudes, and then is carried do the deep ocean by sinking currents. The CO2 is reintroduced to the surface ocean by mixing and upwelling. The C)2 can then be emitted into the tropical atmosphere as needed.
Nitrogen Cycle
this cycle is unique because of its role as a feedback mechanism for all cycles in the ocean.
Nitrogen N2 (78.09%) Oxygen O2 (20.95) Argon AR (0.93%) Carbon Dioxide CO2 (0.03%)
What are the most abundant gases in the atmosphere?
Troposphere, Stratosphere, Mesosphere, Thermosphere
What are the four layers of the atmosphere?
(side note: they are based on temp)
Troposphere
the layer closest to Earth, where almost all weather occurs; the thinnest layer (7 miles) Temp decreases as you go up
Stratosphere
The layer of the atmosphere that is above the troposphere and in which temperature increases as altitude increases. Contains OZone layer
Mesosphere
the layer of the atmosphere between the stratosphere and the thermosphere and in which temperature decreases as altitude increases. Coldest layer
Thermosphere
layer of atmosphere that extends into space. temp increases as you go up.
ionosphere
Lower layer of the thermosphere where ions and free electrons can be found. Creates Northern Lights when radiation hits them
Tilted Axes
Why do we have seasons?
Summer Solstice
when the North Pole is tilted toward the sun on June 21st providing increased daylight hours for the North Hem.
Winter Solstice
when the South Pole is tilted toward the sun on December 21st providing shorter daylight hours for the North Hem.
Spring Equinox
occurs on March 20th when the direct energy from the sun falls on the equator providing equal lengths of days for north and south hem.
Autumn Equinox
occurs on September 22nd when the direct energy from the sun falls on the equator providing equal lengths of days for north and south hem.
head budget
defined as a relation between fluxes of heat into and out of a given region or body and the heat stored by the system
Advection
the horizontal movements of air or substances by wind or ocean currents
Evaporation
the change of a substance from a liquid to a gas
Thermal Radiation
radiation given off by bodes at temperatures normally found at the earths surface and in atmosphere.
Sea breezes
local winds caused by the different rates at which land and water respond to heating and cooling
Monssons
huge wind systems that reverse direction seasonally. Alternate wet and dry seasons.
cirrus clouds
wispy, feathery clouds made of ice crystals that form at high levels
Cumulus clouds
thick, white, fluffy clouds
Stratus clouds
flat layers of clouds that cover much or all of the sky
Nimbus clouds
________ describes low, heavy, dark rain clouds thunderstorms
Cumulo-nimbus
clouds belong to the vertical growth group. They are usually associated with thunderstorms, hail, rain, lightening and tornadoes
Strato-nimbus
dark flat, low clouds, mostly containing liquid droplets.
Dew point
at constant pressure and water vapor content, the temperature at which the rate of condensation equals the rate of evaporation
Lines of Latitude
imaginary lines that run east and west, they tell how far north and south of the equater (also called parallels) 0-90
Lines of Longitude
imaginary lines that run north and south on map or globe, they tell how far east and west of the prime meridian ( also called meridians)
Time Zone
24 _____ on earth. Separated by 15 degrees
International Date line
180 degree meridian and opposite the prime meridian. (Gain or loose a day going across depending on the direction )
Duldrums
a relitively calm area near the equator where the warm air rises. Winds go WEST
Topographic maps
a map that shows the surface features of an area
Maximum relief
refers to the difference in elevation between the highest and lowest points in the area being considered.
Climate
Overall weather in an area over a long period of time
Polar, Tropical, and temperate
What are the three classifications of climate
Dew point
the air temperature at which water vapor begins to condense
Relative Humidity
the ratio of the amount of water in the air at a give temperature to the maximum amount it could hold at that temperature
Barometer
an instrument that measures atmospheric pressure air pressure. measured is atm
Psychrometer and gygrometer
Measured as a percentage
What two tools measure relative humidity?
100%
What is the relative humidity of a parcel of air that is saturated?
/ 59
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