AP English Literature VDB Literary Terms ~ Paradox--Zeugma Flashcards

Terms Definitions
paradox
statement that seems contradictory, but is not
parallelism
repeated syntactical similarities used for effect
parenthetical
phrase set off by commas that interrupt flow of sentence
parody
exaggerating a specific work so that it appears ridiculous; a work created to mock, comment on, or poke fun at an original work, its subject, author, or some other target by means of humorous, satiric or ironic imitation
pastoral
poem set in tranquil nature (ideally around shepherds)
pathos
cliched personification of nature; treatment of inanimate objects as if they had human feelings, thoughts or sensations
pentameter
line of verse containing five metrical feet
periodic sentence
sentence that is grammatically incomplete until its final phrase
persona
character created by author to narrate
periphrasis
adding superfluous words to extend message you are trying to give
personification
inanimate objects or animals take on human shape or characteristics
Petrarchan sonnet
an Italian sonnet (14 lines) composed of an octave rhyming abbaabba and a sestet of varying rhyme schemes, often cdecde
prelude
introductory poem to a longer work of verse
private symbol
author's personal symbol that the reader understands through context
protagonist
the main character of a novel or play
public voice
writer who is speaking for all people
pun
humorous use of word in a way to suggest two or more meanings
pure rhyme
initial sounds of a word differ, rest of the sound is identical (sing/wing, true/blue)
pyrrhic
metrical foot with two unstressed syllables
quatrain
four-line stanza
quintet
five lines of poetry with no prescribed rhyme
refrain
line or set of lines repeated several times in poem
requiem
song of prayer for the dead
rhapsody
passionate verse or section of verse, usually addressing love or praise
rhetorical question
question that suggests an answer and therefore doesn't need to be answered
rhetorical shift
change in tone or attitude (key words: but, however, even though, although, yet)
rich rhyme
word rhymes with its homonym (blue/blew, guessed/guest)
ridicule
words intended to belittle and generate contempt/laughter
rising rhyme
masculine rhyme; rhyme ending on final stressed syllable
sarcasm
ridicule expressed in ironic praise; type of irony in which a person seems to be praising something he's actually insulting
satire
work in which human vice or folly is attacked with irony, derision or wit
scansion
analysis of a poem's rhythm and meter
second intensity
weak poems that could have been better
septet
7 lines of poetry; also known as Chaucerian rhyme
sestet
stanza or poem of 6 lines
sestina
6 line stanzas ending with tercet; last words of each line in 1st stanza repeated as last words in next stanza
Shakespearean sonnet
14 lines in iambic pentameter, ABAB CDCD EFEF GG; three quatrains and a rhyming couplet
sibilance
repetition of s and soft c sounds
simile
comparison using "as" or "like"
slant rhyme
half rhyme
soliloquy
speech spoken by single character on stage
sonnet
14 rhymed lines of verse in iambic pentameter
Spenserian sonnet
14 lines of ABAB BCBC CDCD EE; three quatrains and rhyming couplet
spondee
metrical foot with two stressed syllables
spoonerism
shuffling of first letters of words to make different words and change the actually meaning of the sentence or produce a humorous, nonsense sound
stanza
unit within a longer poem
stock character
standard or cliched character types
stream of consciousness
reader sees inside main character's head and is privy to all character's conscious, random thoughts; unbroken flow of though and awareness of the waking mind; sense perceptions mingle with conscious and half-conscious thoughts and memories
subjunctive
setting up hypothetical situation
surrealism
allowing subconscious or dream-like imagery to guide the poem; leaps from image to image
suspension of disbelief
demand of audience to accept stage limitations and beleive
syllogism
deductive reasoning
synecdoche
type of metaphor wherein a part stands for the whole ("nice wheels")
synesthesia
mixing of senses ("blue smell")
syntax
order of words
technique
styles, devices and diction used by author
tetrameter
poetic line with four metrical feet
texture of poem
sound of poetic words in a piece
tone
attitude of the poet
travesty
grotesque parody; in literature, treatment of a noble and dignified subject in an inappropriately trivial manner; crude form of burlesque
trochaic
metrical measurement of one stressed syllable and one unstressed
trope
any figurative language
truism
way too obvious truth ("the sun rises and sets")
understatement
ironic minimalizing of fact
unreliable narrator
first person is crazy, very young or not entirely credible
utopia
idealized place
verisimilitude
how precisely characters/events in fiction match reality
villanelle
19 lines of 5 tercets (ABA) + quatrain (ABAA); 19 line poem that relies heavily on repetition
voice
associated with the basic vision of a writer; author's general attitude toward the world
weak specification
imprecise, abstract language
wit
words that are intellectually amusing; delight that surprises
zeugma
word modifies two or more words for different meanings ("he caught three fish and a cold", "he took his hat and his leave")
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