first exam Flashcards

Terms Definitions
spontaneous evolution
dental formula
first primates were
dtes volcanic ash
A high-risk, low-reward activity
(philosophy) the philosophical doctrine that all criteria of judgment are relative to the individuals and situations involved
study of human culture
Earliest human like creatures
Self-determination and self government. freedom from external control.
the properties that distinguish organisms on the basis of their reproductive roles
moist skin, reproduce in ocean
Intensive Agriculture
Subsistence practice of Torajans.
Qualitative description of human social phenomena
Big Man
regional political organization regulator, male, societies in south pacific
society characterized by large population size, high population density, urbanization, social stratification, food and labor surpluses, monumental architecture, and record keeping
lemurs: ringtails, indri, aye aye
law of superposition
any geological object that can be arranged in a sequence from younger to older can be used to construct a stratigraphy
**informal means of social control
-"Quit teasing me or I won't invite you to my party"
-threat of ostracism=conformity
-gossiping(threat of being topic of gossip=behavior regulation)
Primates probably evolved from this...
makes you work harder, ecological instability, famine, inequality, affecting social structures and health
acheulean industry
the industry with the handaxe.
A biochemical difference involving a particular gene
human paleontology
focus within biological anthropology that study where we came from and our evolutionary history
Searches for interrelationships of all 4 subjects
a set of behavioral expectations appropriate to an individual's social position.
Studies of social organization of animals
Socially accepted patterns of sound; cultural
in societies practicing shamanism: one acting as a medium between the visible and spirit worlds
abilineal kinship
flexible descent rule, neither patrilineal nor matrilineal; achieved status
True or False: Claude Levi-Strauss takes a statistical approach to studying human social organization.
achieved qualities
skills people aquire in lifetime
Sex Differences:
-Slight sexual dimorphism - Differences in pelvis. - Males have heavy musculature, reflected in thicker bones.
belief that multiple defies control aspects of nature
Monkeys, apes, humans. Larger brain and body, longer gestation and maturation with increased parental care and sociality. Vision emphasis. Monkeys make up 85% of all primate species. 2 groups: old world, new world
informed consent
Formal recorded agreement to participate in the research. Federally mandated for all research in the United States and Europe.
The first stone tool industry beginning between 2.5 and 2.6 million years ago
study of fossil record for human-kind
unpaid labor lieu of taxation, usually on road construction and maintenance
resembling or characteristic of the physical type of Neanderthal man
Breeding Population
smaller than a species actual identification of a species
Linguistic Competence
system of linguistic knowledge of native speakers
nature vs. nurture
contrasting the biological versus cultural or environmental basis for behavior
Genetic drift
chance changes in allele frequencies due to random events or populations splitting.
A couple establishes a residence apart from either spouses family
form of locomotion found only in hominids
belonging to or active during the day
armed combat between groups of people who constitute separate areas
marriage oaten allowing a man multiple wives. It is the institution of plural marriage.
the process of social and economic change, usually marked by technological advancements or more efficient methods, helps to produce more capital
kinship system
totality of kin relations, kind groups, and terms used to classifying kin in a society
A network of relatives within which individuals possess certain mutual rights and obligations
Sexual orientation
distinct from biological sex and gender, determined by mix of genetic and cultural factors
society that condemns violence. no one is praised so that no one is boastful
Theory on the formation and structure of the universe.
A series of symbols representing the sounds of a language arranged in a traditional order.
-Bone, Ivory, and stone. - Female figurines: (venus figurines) =>Most likely represent fertility. - They are surreal (not like cave art). - Found throughout Europe, and as far east as Siberia. - There are several variations. *Several things in common: - Sculptures interest is on the torso. - Arms and legs are small. - Heads merely suggested. - Emphasis on the breasts, belly, and buttocks. (Venus of Willendorf, Austria ->10,000 y.a.)
Symbolic actions
The activities - including ritual, myth, art, dance, and music - that dramatically depict the meanings shared by a specific body of people
The economic foundation of a society, including its subsistence practices and the tools and other material equipment used to make a living.
one of the three principles of exchange that governs exchange between social equals
stratified societies
societies in which people are hierarchically divided and ranked into social strata, or layers, and do not share equally in basic resources that support survival and prestige.
Conjugal Family
Allowed the privilege of sexual activities
Independent invention
The independent development of a cultural feature in different societies.
A human settlement pattern in which people largely stay in one place year-round, although some members of the population may still be mobile in the search for food and raw materials
Central sulcus
separates the frontal and parietal lobes.
World systems
an attempt to explain levels of economic development in terms of the exploitation of the poor by the rich nations of the world, rather than in terms of the innate socioeconomic characteristics of each
new chimpanzees
share more than 97% of human genes
Fayum primates from Oligocene epoch.
1. Oligopithecids
2. Paraphithecids
3. Propliopithecids
a man who has more than one wife
occupational specialization
complex divisions of labor, many "full time" jobs
Cultural Anthropology
the branch of anthropology that deals with human culture and society
A group or subset within a society that is distinguished by some unique aspects of its behavior (such as clothing styles, linguistic usages, or beliefs and values).
a pilgrimage to Mecca, performed as a duty by Muslims
Key of Biological Evolution
Genetic change, replicate, colonize, and sexual reproduction
gracile australopithecines
Found only in south africa, aka australopithecus africanus - TAUNG BABY by Robert Dart, small skulls and jutting out faces
the tendency to judge the beliefs and behaviors of other cultures from the perspective of one's own culture
vertical kinship systems
provides social continuity by binding together successive generations
Human revolution
40 kya, rise of upper paleolithic tools, art and jewelry, elaborate shelters
sorcerer this is what many refer to Erasmo as because they don't understand him
cultural adaptation
A complex of ideas, activities, and technologies that enable people to survive and even thrive.
Ojibwa: Inanimate vs. animate "Grandfathers"-
Inanimate: manufactured items
· Animate: humans, animals, plants, sun, wind
· Before hunting and gethering, need permission from "owners" of plants/animals
· Animals and plants treated with respect
· "grandfathers": beings more powerful than humans
secondary social groups
larger, more anonymous, more formal, and more impersonal. (EX: religious groups, political groups, communities)
Significance of mammals
longer child dependency meaning more time to transmit culture from mother to children.
a more or less formal social position with specific rights and responsibilities. one source of "political" authority and social control
Paleoanthropology (Human Evolution)
Study of ancient humans through fossils
Cross Cousin Marriage
Dads sisters child marries Moms brothers child
portions of the DNA molecule that code for the production of specific proteins
what is the study of the relationships between language and culture, and how they influence and inform each other
erect or vertical, as in position or posture.
the functions of marriage:
1. need to regulate __ __
2.need for responsibility for ___
sexual access children
Multiregional Evolution
Idea that H. erectus evolved into H. sapiens in all regions inhabited by humans, not just in Africa.
Fixity of Species
The notion that species, once created, can never change
a marriage between a man and two or more wives
human skeletal remains
remains of humans or human ancestors resulting from either accidental or intentional burial or some other preservation activity
In a rite of passage, isolation of the individual following separation and prior to incorporation into society
Cribra Orbitalia
A symptom of iron deficiency anemia in which the bone of the upper eye sockets takes on a spongy appearance.
of or relating to or occurring in the night
comte de buffon
external environment as an agent of change in species
family of procreation
formed when one marries and has children
Urban Applied Anthropologist
to help relevant social groups deal with urban institutions such as legal and social services. such as getting a person hooked up in a societies culture. The Samoan population in LA

are some of the explanations for why early forms of agriculture developed? Explain them. 

were some of the earliest domesticates, and where and when were they

why are there no primitive languages?
speakers in preliterate societies often lacked specific words and the differences therefore could not be interpreted as evidence of a more primitive or intermediate phase of linguistic evolution
marriage of a woman to 2 or more men at a time
Case Study to applied urban anthro
Debra Boyer: underutilization of shelters and homeless facilities by homeless people in Seattle.
High fertility rates
# of babies conceived will remain high until infant mortality rates decline and couples have an economic benefit from restricting fertility
Features of Paleolithic Culture
- stone tools- nomadic hunting and gathering
Gender roles in foraging societies
men contributed much more than the women did to the diet.
-Women were the gatherers and men were the hunters
-Less gender stratification
-women stay pregnant
Cultural ecology and Functionalist ecology
the 2 theoretical models discussed in class
HDI (Human development Index)
not just $ average person makes but also life expectancy, schooling years, measure in terms of inequality with country average vs. income equality
The x and y chormoses____
The y chromose is very small compared with other chromosomes and contains a small number of genes. The x chromosome contains a large number of genes
lesson of No Pineapple At All
don't request a gift; can't refuse giving the gift
Ashkenazi Jews (Middle & Northern Europe Sephardic
A member of the branch of European Jews, historically Yiddish-speaking, who settled in central and northern Europe. Nazi Germany jews.
What is a nuchal crest?
a ridge or crest of bone in the back of the skull where the neck muscles attach
What is the differnce between sex and gender?
Sex is whether a person is male or female. Gender is the behaviors expected for a person of a certain sex. These behaviors can change from society to society because often societies do not agree on this topic. Sex is an ascribed status and it's a biological term (male or female). Meanwhile, gender is a culturally defined behavior (what your culture expects you to do, the role you are to play).
Golgi Apparatus
Fats, oils, cholesterol
smooth ER
no ribosomes!
eat both autotrophs,plants,carnovores animals.Ex:people,racoon,bears.
co- or con
with, together
double covalent bonds- healthy
what leaves have several blades
symbiotic fungi
increase surface area od roots increasing water and mineral uptake
fungi increases root growth and secretes antibiotics that can kill plant pathogens
What structures are oxygen rich?
(pol´-e-sak´-uh-rid) A polymer of many monosaccharides, formed by dehydration reactions.
homeothermic, hair, mammary glands, live birth, monotremes,
carry genetic information
shedding and discarding of an exoskeleton in order to grow in size
pairs of homolous chromosomes that don't deperate normally during meiosis
type of fungus, flagellated cells, mostly unicellular, no fruiting bodies
more solid than liquidectoplasm- outer cytoplasm
10. Diploid
cells having two sets of chromosomes.
The most prevalent primary energy source is...
Expand the abbreviation PVC
premature ventricular contraction
Bartesian Predation
Selective advantage for harmless animals to resemble poisonous animals
subunits pass through nuclear pores to cytoplasm where they combine to form...
index fossils
markers which help identify sedimentary layers
a small, rounded outgrowth produced from a fungus spore or cell by a process of asexual reproduction, eventually separating from the parent cell as a new individual: commonly produced by yeast and a few other fungi.
reproduction of the inside or outside surface of a living thing
if a plant's cells and their surroundings are isotonic, there is no net tendency for water to enter, and the cells become _______
sex-linked genes
gene located on either sex chromosome
light reactions
 harvest photon energt ro sythesize atp and nadph
the portion of protein synthesis that takes place at ribosomes and that uses codons in mRNA molecules to specify the sequence of of amino acids in polypeptide chains.
-includes red algae and green algae along with land plants-red algae and green algae include unicellular species, colonial species (like Volvox) and multicellular species-protists in this group include key photosynthetic species that are the base of the food web in some aquatic communities.
a receptor protein built into the plasma membrane that interconnects the extracellular matrix and the cytoskeleton
coupled reactions must have a net _______ nature
adaptive radiation
the evolutionary process by which ancestral forms of an organism are diversified through adaptation to new environments
Give the meaning of the suffix -emia
a cyclic process-adds amino acids to polypeptide chainsproceeds in 5'=3' direction along mRNApolypeptide chain grows from amino end to carboxyl end
The building blocks of proteins are
amino acids.
Golgi apparatus
modifies sorts and packages proteins (etc.) from the ER for storage/exportation
proteins are a chain of...
amino acids (A.A)
Glycolysis is regulated by _________ __________: high concentrations of ATP inhibit the enzyme phosphofructokinase which catalyzes step 3.
Feedback Inhibition
a single-stranded molecule of RNA that is synthesized in the nucleus from a DNA template and then enters the cytoplasm, where its genetic code specifies the amino acid sequence for protein synthesis.
the measure of concentration of H+ in a solution
Convalent Bonds
Two or more atoms that share elections
Allopatric Speciation
Speciation is initiated via a barrier to gene flow.Differentiation is due to selection and/or drift.
ice floats because
it is less dense than water
Very early stage of chromatin coiling happens in the ______stage
G2 stage
What has nine pairs + two arrangements of microtubules and tubulins?
an investigation of a phenomenon in a controlled setting to test a hypothesis
The weak allele that only shows if dominant is absent
Somatic Cells
body cell, contain 2 sets of chromosomes
Sympatric facts
Starts with one large, randomly mating population. differences among individuals cause them to choose different habitats and mates. Habitat spevialization and non-random mating cause individuals to become genetically different. Eventually, two spevies coexist.
water in the ground or in underground formations or porous rock.
Respiration problems
Smoking: results in lung cancer and emphysemaAsbestos: causes lung cancerCarbon Monoxide: colorless and odorless gas that binds to hemoglobin and prevents oxygen absorption at very low concentrations. A silent killer….Allergens and asthma: many triggers in the environment
endoplasmic reticulum
a network of tubular membranes within the cytoplasm of the cell, occurring either with a smooth surface
a legal decision or form of proceeding serving as an authoritative rule or pattern in future similar or analogous cases.
homologous chromosomes
- A pair of similar chromosomes that have the same genes in the same order, but may have different versions (alleles) of those genes.
- One of the pair of chromosomes came from Mom in an ovum, & the other came from Dad in a sperm.
- Humans have 23 pairs of homologous chromosomes.
Follicular Phase
First phase in the menstrual cycle, In which an egg reaches maturation and is ovulated
protomes are further divided into 2 groups : lophotrochozaoa and ecdysozoa on the basis of ?
DNa sequence analysis
Each eukaryotic cell has a cytoskeleton, which is a network of small proteins that is constantly changing to meet the needs of a cell. What are the three main types of fibers that it is composed of?
Microtubules, Intermediate filaments, and microfilaments.
1838 found that plants are composed of cells
matthias schleiden
What is fitness?
the ability of an individual to survive and reproduce in a specific environment
Active transport
proteins act as pumps using ATP for energy; moves substances from an area of lower concentration to higher against the concentration gradient
produce histamines, initiate inflammatory reactions.
What are the "weapons" of basophils?
Dark reactions
The second of two major stages in photosynthesis, involving atmospheric CO2 fixation and reduction of the fixed carbon into carbohydrate. These reactions are also called the Calvin Cycle.
enzyme cofactors or coenzymes
non protein or protein molecules that are needed by enzymes o function properly.
All carbon atoms associated with the pentose sugars are characterized by ________ ________, whereas all carbon atoms of the nitrogenous bases are _____ _____________
Prime numbers, whole numbers
hydrogen sulfide
The first life on Earth lived in a very hostile environment, where bacteria survived only deep below the surface by extracting chemical energy from ______________ ____________
receptor antagonists
a drug that binds to a receptor but does not activate it. Prevent other drugs/molecules from binding to the receptor.
Features of High Ceiling Diuretics
􀂄 Stronger, faster onset of action than
􀂄 Na restriction often is needed because of
post-diuretic rebound effect

􀂄 Treats hypercalcemia: unlike thiazides,
these drugs increase calcium in the urine

􀂄 Ototoxic, so assess hearing and balance
The sodium-potassium pump is called an electrogenic pump because it
contributes to the membrane potential
What is the power of magnification?
The factor of enlargment in microscopes.
What three major structures make the mollusk body plan?

Visceral mass = internal organs

Mantle = covers visceral mass & may secrete shell

Foot = locomotion
Function and components of the shoot system?
Includes: apical bud, blade, leaf, node, petiole, lateral bud, internode and stem. The function is photosynthesis, reproduction, storage and transport
What is disruptive selection?
can lead to a balance between two or more contrast
What are 3 problems with getting energy only from glycolysis?
1. Pyruvate waste product2. NADH waste product3. limited NAD+
18. Removal of a lung would cause what in relation to diffusing capacity?
Direct relationship – it reduces surface area thus decreasing the diffusing capacity of the lungs
In Ascaris there are organs which are thread-like tubes what system do they belong to?
The thread like tube organs belong to the Reproductive system
Dutch Aristocracy
June 6, 1944
formal expression of opinion
George Simpson
the HBC governor
Developed a great civilization,worshiped forces of nature.In tropical climate of mexico,300-900 A.D. Also a native american tribe, invented 0
theory proposed by jeremy bentham
vladimir putin
president of russia today
French analog to English Parliament
Coastal, seafaring, sea peoples; moved for 100-150 years before settling; responsible for stop in trade;started the alphabet; adopted Canaanite gods.
alger hiss
a former state department official
A Medieval association of people working at the same occupation, which controlled its members' wages and prices.
Kenyanthropus Platyops
Debated apecies to this day
taken over by another country, cultural influence, messes up economy.China is like a pie (it is divided). THey try to fight back (Boxer REbellion 1899-1901) failed
majoritarian politics
everyone benefits and everyone pays
black activist, formed universal negro improvement Assn.
Marcus Garvey
great awakening
Religious revival in the American colonies of the eighteenth century during which a number of new Protestant churches were established.
The effort by Christian leaders to drive the Muslims out of Spain, lasting from the 1100s until 1492.
Louis Armstrong
First great jazz soloist. Played trumpet and was instrumental in developing scat singing
Confucian government
leaders should lead by example, idealist, rule by kindness, not laws and punishment; golden rule
David Wilmot
Creator of Wilmot Proviso (saying there would be no slavery in territory acquired during Mexican America War).
warm water port peninsula in Black Sea
what indian leader tried to united indians into the confederation?
theodore roosevelt
succeeded after mckinly.said to speak softly andf carry big stick.built the panama canal.
Women's groups
act as mothers of societies protectiong sons, husbands, country
drug users, and people of that sorts
Continental Army
unified command structure of the thirteen colonies fighting Great Britain during the American Revolutionary War.
regular army, recruits who signed up for an extended period of time
Zyklon B
base was cyanide; colorless gas, bitter almond smell, caused dizziness, vmiting, and dealth from asphyxiation
a span of geological time within a period, based partly on evidence of major disturbances in Earth's crust and on the characteristics of the common rock formations
XYZ Affair
An insult to the American delegation when they were supposed to be meeting French foreign minister, Talleyrand, but instead they were sent 3 officials Adams called "X,Y, and Z" that demanded $250,000 as a bribe to see Talleyrand. Adams only wished to ask for financial compensation for destroyed property and for the French to relase us from any obligations in the Treaty of 1778.
a picture or symbol used in; a hieroglyphic system of writing
Third Reich
an Aryan racial state that Hitler thought would dominate Europe for a thousand years
Jacob Riis
A Danish immigrant, he became a reporter who pointed out the terrible conditions of the tenement houses of the big cities where immigrants lived during the late 1800s. He wrote How The Other Half Lives in 1890.
I wrote "The Jungle" which described the terrible practices in the meat packing plants
Upton Sinclair.
A volcanic black rock often used by ancient people to make tools.
John Hopkins University
one of the early research universities. Daniel Coit Gilman. Made significant contributions and advancements in medicine
negritude movement
movement in which writers and artists of African desent express pride in their African heritage
 collective security
joint agreement by nations to protect themselves from attack
Wagner Act (NLRA)
outlaws company unions, creates NLR board, ensures that workers have free choice in bargaining agent.
an agreement between two or more sides in which each side gives up some of what it wants
Practice in which father arranged a relationship between his son and an older man in return for education
Patron-client system
The Senate
Who must approve any treaties that are made with foreign countries?
cotton gin
a machine for cleaning the seeds from cotton fibers, invented by Eli Whitney in 1793.
Zachary Taylor
General that was a military leader in Mexican-American War and 12th president of the United States. Sent by president Polk to lead the American Army against Mexico at Rio Grande, but defeated.
Office of Economic Opportunity
oversaw many programs dealing w/ improving life in inner cities (ex: Job Corps: education and job training program for at-risk youth), Set guidelines for equal hiring and education practices (started "quotas")
Hamilton interprets the Constitution
Constitution gave Congress power to make all laws. Bank necessary for govt to collect taxes and pay bills
In the Wannsee Conference, Nazi leaders
planned the "final solution"
Martin Luther King Jr
an American clergyman, activist, and prominent leader in the African American civil rights movement. He is best known for being an iconic figure in the advancement of civil rights in the United States and around the world, using nonviolent methods following the teachings of Mahatma Gandhi. King is often presented as a heroic leader in the history of modern American liberalism.
what were the fist and second ironclads called?
monitor and merrimack
The Treaty of Paris (1783)
formally ended the American Revolutionary War
12 tables
The Law of the Twelve Tables Leges Duodecim Tabularum, or, informally, Duodecim Tabulae was the ancient legislation that stood at the foundation of Roman law. The Law of the Twelve Tables formed the centerpiece of the constitution of the Roman Republic an
Louis XVI
King of France from 1774 to 1792; his unpopular policies helped trigger the French Revolution. He was executed by guillotine.
Rosie the Riveter
Symbol of the campaign to hire women during the wartime labor shortage
Order of the Star Spangled Banner
Protestant political group that developed into a strong political force in the 1850's
James Dean
a film star in the 1950s who was killed in a car crash in 1955
checks and balances
limits imposed on all branches of a government by vesting in each branch the right to amend or void those acts of another that fall within its purview.
Alien and Sedition Acts
Had 3 parts: Part one was the Naturalization Act which increased from five to 14 the number of years required to qualify for citizenship, part two was the alien acts which authorized the president to deport any aliens considered dangerous and detain any enemy aliens in time of war, and part three the sedation act which made it illegal for newspaper editors to criticize either the president or Congress.
Importance of Philosophes
if the ppl have an abusive ruler, get rid of them and start over
what created the stalemate on the western front
trenchwarfare and machine gun, failure of the schlieffen plan
Salah ad-Din ibn Ayyub
Def - Lived from the 12th to 13th century and conquered the crusader state of Jerusalem and established the Ayyubid Dynasty in the Middle East. His descendents used slaves as soldiers. Killed the fatimid caliphate to extinction and conquested Egypt for Sunni Islam

Sig - Played in important role in shaping the Islamic world in his conquest. Also helped unite Northen Africa and Southwest Asia which lead to less division in Asia and Africa.
- What was the purpose of the North Atlantic Treaty Organization? How did it represent a major change in American foreign policy?
From its founding, NATO’s primary purpose was to unify and strengthen the Western Allies’ military response to a possible invasion of western Europe by the Soviet Union and its Warsaw Pact allies. In the early 1950s NATO relied partly on the threat of massive nuclear retaliation from the United States to counter the Warsaw Pact’s much larger ground forces.
4 main factors of the appeal of longism
Desperation1. By 1920’s people of LA were desperate for some type of positive in their state. LA ranked near the bottom in all measures of health, well being, education,infrastructure, etc.2. Had seen reform movements in the past but they were all defeated and never made any meaningful reform for the state
3. People ready for more radical reformCharisma1. Huey’s personal charisma.2. Tended to portray 2 images of himself:         a. Man of the people – grown up poor, working inthe fields, shared the peoples life experiencesand in turn shared their values         b. Benevolent father figure – someone they couldlook up to as a protectant.         c. Of the people but also Above the people – these 2 images complemented themselvesClass over Race1. Like all southern politicans, he was a white supremacist– believed whites were better than blacks – but he did not use race as a political tool in his campaign2. He appealed to the people of LA based on theireconomic status
Results1. Would have never won like he did or had the impactslike he did had he not followed through with thepromises he made.2. People supported him because he made promises and kept them
What was one of the problems at the start of WWI?
There was not enough people for the army. First National Draft.
(adj) sensitive
formal essay
(v) to recognize
an extravagant exageration
Historical Docs
Primary historical sources
A character who changes.
comparison using like or as
A form of deductive reasoning
charrie w/ many dif traits
moved lightly though the air
a storys sequence of incidence arranged in dramatic order
opposition between characters or foces in a work of drama or fiction
migration or displacement of large groups of people due to current circumstances or difficulty.
Ambiguity: in literature, imprecision about outcomes can be a powerful device, leaving something undetermined in order to open up multiple possible meanings. When we refer to literary ambiguity, we refer to any wording, action, or symbol that can be read in divergent ways.
Harriet Tubman escaped slavery from which state?
Everything that happens in a story.
the ideas associated with a word
Did not happen in real life.
The internal and external forces which compel a character to act. Sometimes these forces may be chiefly psychological, sometimes sociological, and sometimes a matter of hostility or opportunity in the physical environment. For credibility, motivation should be consistent with character.
"My Furthest Back Person"
Author: Alex Haley
Type: Personal
A statement that expresses a person's belief or attitude.
A distinctive variety of a language, spoken only by members of an identifiable regional group or social class
The time and place of a story
Anecdotal Evidence
Information passed on by word-of-mouth but not documented scientifically.
Dramatic situation
Aperson is involved in some conflict.
Persuasive Techniques
devices used to persuade: appeals, testimonials, etc.
a short non-fiction work about a particular subject
an imagined person who inhabits a story
lowered in pitch by one chromatic semitone`
all forms of writing except for poetry and drama
the general idea or insight the entire story reveals to the reader
dramatic irony
the contrast between what you (the audience member) know and what a character knows. ie "I know something you don't know!"
What an autobiographer does
Writes about their own life
It is a term for an often-repeated character, incident, idea or image in literature that is used to convey themes.
Literary fiction
Name for stories not entirely factual, but at least partially shaped, made up, imagined.
Falling Action
The action starts to settle down approching the resolution
propaganda: snob appeal
using wealth, social position to show the product is better
in a way that shows little emotion or excitabiltiy
3rd Omniscient P.O.V.
The narrator is all-knowing of the charries
A story of a person's life written by someone else
an event or episode in a work of fiction that moves the plot forward or reveals character
What a biographer does
Writes a representation of a person's life
Historical Fiction
The story takes the reader back to an actual time period where they learn about the everyday life of a person.
The story of mankind
The first non-ficton book to win the Newberry Medal was ____.
free will
What is Matter?
material bases 
condition of production
means of production
soical relationships of production
ruling class
a defense ( socrates)

spirit manifests itself as subjective 
"after physics" used to discuss the greater questions of why and how of the cosmos
effusively and almost uninhibitedly enthusiastic; lavishly abundant:
the study/science of knowledge (and truth)
reality and god are the same
The practice of ascribing nonhuman beings properties and characteristics of human beings. 
Expressed consent
Agreement offered linguistically of through conventional gestures. The basic paradigm of consent
Metaphysical Question
Is God apart of reality?
activity in process; form as determining essence, a state of realization as opposed to potentiality
3. Denies Universal and world of forms
Descartes used science where _ used forms.
the universe is based on non-material transcendent ideas and concepts
Sound Argument
A deductive or inductive argument is this, if all the premisses are true are true for that argument.
49. All of the following are factors predisposing a patient to brainstem ishemia except:
a. vascular anomaly
b. congenital anomaly
c. arteriosclerosis
d. 120/80 blood pressure bilaterally
Categorical Imperative
the central philosophical concept in the moral philosophy of Immanuel Kant, as well as modern deontological ethics. it may be defined as a way of evaluating motivations for action.
Explain the properties and existence of an object in terms of the temporal development and history of the object and its ancestors.
Historical explanations
branch of philosophy devoted to the study of knowledge: It's nature extent and justification
the doctrine that all actions are determined by, or at least take place for, the benefit of the individual, not of society as a whole
To settle disputes, strikes, etc. as an intermediary between parties; reconcile.
Thomas Aquinas
4 items 
13th Century, University of Paris, Doctor of Roman Catholic church - identified with Scholasticism. This is the belief that faith and intellect must walk concomitantly. Reason and religion must walk together.
-Wrote Summa Theologica, a theological masterpiece.
-He unified natural law with greek philosophy and biblical tradition.
-He believed than natural law is derived from a sovereign God. The Conscience of mankind is the agency whereby each person knows right from wrong.
-Moral good is the fulfillment of our natural end and evil is a deficiency that prevents us from achieving "teliotes" or fulfillment.
Philosophers such as _ say that there will never be a true description of anything, just re-descriptions.
Empirical truths
These truths concern what is, happens to be, has happened, the actual facts, etc
Empirical statements can be true, false, or (often)indeterminate
The refusal to believe either that God exists or that he does not exist, usually on the grounds that there can be no sufficient evidence for either belief. (65)
8. The motions of forward flexion and extension occur at the _________.
a. x axis
cogito ergo sum
Translated as "I think therefoer I am" This the famous line from Descartes that makes him sure he exists at least as a mind
Rejects methodological naturalism and is committed to the in-principle legitimacy of theistic science.
Intelligent design (ID) movement
o If moral properties existed, they would be unlike anything else in the worldo If they did exist, how could we know them?
Argument from simplicity
the mind or the mental faculties as characterized by thought, feelings, and volition
to look upon or treat with contempt; despise; scorn.
Hume was skeptical of claims based upon?
eye witness testimony
multiple realization
a mental state occurs because of a response to something happening and if that stimulant is not present the mental state can not be the same
Appearance vs. Reality-
What’s really real in reality, and what appears to be real in reality. Reality is unchanging, and permanent, Plays role in Plato’s theory, of Life of Being and Life of Becoming. Philosophers that believe this are Heraclites and Permedes
Is philosophy just knowledge?
No it is also an activity
Quantitative Identity
Identical if two things have the same number (i.e. ten apples in one hand and ten apples in the other).
Involves two main issues: Is a human made of only one component? If the answer is two components, do mind and matter interact, and if so, how does that interaction take place?
Mind-Body Problem
objective idealism
the act of experiencing has a reality combining and transcending the natures of the object experienced or the mind of the observer
objection 4 against theological voluntarism
This conception of morality implies that, without God, nothing would be right or wrong
Give Creel’s expanded definition of philosophy. Be able to explain why each of the parts of that definition is present in the definition (N.B. you will need to go back to chapter two in order to complete this question).
Answer:Philosophy is the passionate pursuit by means of reason of knowledge of the real and the good.
Pro choice
not a person, its ok to kill something that's not a person
Second Way
nothing can be a cause of its own existence, nor can there be an infinite chain of causes and effects; so there must be a first mover
A sentence has an emotive meaning if it is used to express emotion (Emotivism)
Disagreement in Belief
Who were the Sophists?
They believed that there was no truth and that truth wasn't the end of an argument - winning was.
the argument of design
everything in the world is made just so that we can manage to live in the world. Therefore, God created the world
Solutions to the problem of evil?
Solutions might include John Hicks free will defense and the virtue defense. The free will defense is that all humans have the choice to make decisions on their own and evil may result from their decisions. The virtue defense is
What distinguishes free and unfree acts, according to the compatibilist? (Review the
compatibilist’s argument that their distinction between free and unfree actions
matches our everyday judgments.)
free- come to class
unfree- taking heroin, stealing if kleptomaniac
With which 4 things do people confuse choice, and why in each case are they incorrect?
1.appetite 2. passion 3. wish 4. some form of an opinion Choice is not shared by irrational creatures, whereas appetite and passion are. The acts of a morally weak person are accompanied by appetite, but not by choice, while a morally strong person acts from choice, but not from appetite.
What does Thrasymachus challenge Socrates to do in Plato's dialogue the Republic?
To define justice in a clear, precise statement. This is an attempt on Thrasymachus' part to turn the tables on Socrates.
Mackie's fallacious solutions to the problem of evil

(list 3)
-saying that all 3 propositions are true ---(but in the process of explaining them they end up rejecting one-don't defend themselves adequately)

1)good can't exist w/o evil (they're necessary counterparts)
2)the world is better with some evil & with the virtues that result than w/o evil & w/o virtues [the virtue defense]
3)evil is due to the misuse of human freewill [freewill defense]
What, according to Sartre, is despair, and how is it related to Human freedom?
Despair is an emotion that overwhelms an individual as they begin 2 become fully responsible for him or herself.  Despair specifically describes the limitations of faith, preventing 1 from relying on false hope.   Despair describes how humans aren't bound 2 facts that are predetermined, and prevents 1 from being hopeful that God or an external force will bring them what they desire.  This is related to human freedom in the sense that it is a freeing agent that allows them 2 know what to expect, freeing people from irrational hopes and making them responsible for his or her actions. 
Why did Goldman think justification isn't necessary for knowledge?3) Storm/joint-pain
Storm coming in causes the subject to have joint pain, which somehow causes the person to form the belief that a storm is coming in. (Note that the subject doesn't realize the connection between the joint pain and the belief.) This case is somewhat controversial, some people don't agree with the intuition that this is a case of knowledge.
What are some weaknesses of subjectivism?
1. there is no basis for criticizing others
2. the same action could be morally acceptable and immoral
What does Wallace take to be the greatest strength of Frankfurt’s view?
helpful because he helps us understand the nature of estrangement, which is doing something that you don’t fully identify with.
how does Card's view appeal to the Categorical imperative?
Cards view is pertaining to the respect for persons
What points does Crito make in trying to convince Socrates to escape from jail?
1. Make a bad reputation about his friends not freeing him.
2. His death will deprive them of a friend.
3. This is just a big bad wrap anyways.
4. No one would even really care if you escaped.
5. You are betraying your sons when you could raise them and educate them.
6. You are just taking the easiest route
Do Skeptics say that you can have beliefs?
Yes you can still have beliefs, but they are opinions that are probably wrong
Which of the following is not among Kant’s formulations of the categorical imperative?
So act that the maxim of your will can always maximize transcendental freedom.
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