The Atmosphere In Motion-Chapter 12 Study Guide Flashcards

Terms Definitions
Convection
__________ is the transfer of heat by the flow of a heated material.
sun
The __________ is the source of all energy in our atmosphere.
exosphere
The __________ blends into outer space.
Coriolis effect
The ___________ is caused by the Earth's rotation.
very warm
Temperatures in the thermosphere and exosphere are ___________.
fewer
There are ________ molecules of air at high elevations, so air pressure is less.
conduction
The transfer of energy that occurs when molecules bump into one another is called _______.
troposphere
The ____________ is the layer of the atmosphere nearest to Earth's surface.
prevailing westerlies
The __________________ are responsible for the movement of much of the weather across the United States and Canada.
equator
The air above the _______ rises because it has low density and low pressure.
higher
Cold air has more molecules occupying a cubic centimeter of space than warm air; therefore, it has ___________ pressure.
some energy is reflected back into space, some is absorbed by the atmosphere, some is absorbed by land and water on Earth's surface (all of the above)
When Earth receives energy from the Sun, _______________.
stratosphere
The ____________ contains the highest concentration of ozone.
differences in heating
The flow of air caused by _____________ and the Coriolis effect creates distinct wind patterns on Earth's surface.
higher
If the ozone layer disappeared, life on Earth would be exposed to _____________ concentrations of ultraviolet radiation.
condensation
The process of water vapor changing to a liquid is called __________________.
destroying ozone molecules
Chlorofluorocarbons may be harming the ozone layer by ___________________.
at sea level
Air pressure is greatest ____________ because there are more molecules of air pushing down from Earth.
more directly
Air above the equator is heated more than at any other place on Earth because solar rays strike the equator ____________.
precipitation
When water droplets in a cloud combine, become too heavy, and fall to the ground as rain, snow, sleet, or hail, we are experiencing _______________.
air mass
An _________________ is a large body of air that has the same properties as the Earth's surface over which it develops.
tornado
A violent, whirling wind that moves in a narrow path over land is a ________________.
Relative
__________ humidity is a measure of the amount of water vapor that air is holding compared to the amount needed or saturation at a specific temperature.
stratus
Low, layered gray clouds that produce light precipitation are ___________ clouds.
front
The boundary between cold and warm air masses is called a ____________.
warning
When severe weather conditions already exist, a _______________ is issued.
at fronts
Precipitation and storms occur _______________.
dew point
The temperature at which air is saturated and condensation forms is the _____________.
cirrus
High, thin, white, feathery clouds containin ice crystals are usually associated with fair weather, but they can also indicate approaching storms. These clouds are called ______________ clouds.
travel east to west
Most hurricanes ________________________.
the air near the ground cools to its dew point
Water can form on grass in the early morning when the air is clear because ________________
________________________________________.
cumulus
Masses of puffy, white clouds, often with flat bases, that form when air currents rise are called _________________ clouds.
cold fronts
Violent storms generally form along ___________.
stratus
Fog is a _________________ cloud that forms near the ground.
water vapor
Clouds form as warm air rises, expands, cools, and becomes saturated, and then ____________ condenses into tiny drops, which collect.
the air masses sink, making it difficult for clouds to form
High pressure means good weather because ________________________________________.
Tornadoes
____________ can be produced by thunderstorms.
heights
Tornadoes can form when wind at different ___________ blows in different directions and at different speeds.
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