subject to approval by US senate but could only be removed by the president. Knew the president needed to be surrounded by people he trusts.
describes an executives ability to fire public-office holders of the defeated political party and replace them with loyalists
jobs, grants, or other special favors given as rewards to friends and political allies for their support.
Rutherford B Hays, system of employment based on qualifications, test scores and ability rather than loyalty
-rejected by congress
-someone got shot due to job competition
|Civil Service Reform Act or Pendelton Act||
established merit system of federal employment on the basis of open, competitive exams and created bipartisan three-member civil service commission
|ICC (interstate commerce commission)||
reacted to public outcries over rates charged by railroads
-became first independent regulatory commission
|Independent regulatory commission||
created by congress and are generally concerned with one aspect of the economy
-members appointed by president
-cannot be removed by president unless they fail to do their job
government control of economy strengthened.
- department of commerce and labor, employer-employee relations
|Federal Trade Commission (FTC)||
protects small businesses from big businesses
-after WWI farmers had bad harvest, construction industry went down, bank failures
-stock market crash in 1929
-FDR created many agencies in response
WWII, provided college loans for returning veterans as well as low mortgage rates
-exist for public good
-gov leaders driven by reelection
-raises revenue from tax payer
-driven by profit motive
-earn money from customers
carrer government employees who work in the cabinet-level departments and independent agencies that comprise more than 2000 bureaus, divisions, branches, offices, services and other subunits of the federal government.
how employees are paid, they move into higher and higher salary levels as their careers progress
|Civil Service System||
lower level- jobs filled by written test
mid level- submit resumes online; rank candidates, only names "qualified". time-consuming and can take from 6-9 months
|Not hired by Civil service system||
10 percent. 3 categories 1) appointive policy-making positions 2) Independent regulatory commissioners 3) low-level, non policy patronage positions
|Appointive policy-making positions||
3,500. some including cabinet secretaries and assistant secretaries which are both subject to senate.
-responsible for appointing high-level policy making assistants who form top of bureaucratic hierarchy. "Schedule C: political appointees.
|Independent Regulatory Commissioners||
President gets to appoint as many as 100. They become independent of direct political influence once they take office
|Low-level nonpolicy patronage positions||
These types of positions generally concern secretarial assistants to policy makers
|Presidential management fellows program||
Training program desired to be enhanced so that there is not a concern about the high turnover of employees in certain positions. Many people do not want the higher jobs due to traveling, safety etc and they people holding the positions are getting older.
|4 Different types of agencies||
1) cabinet departments
2) government corporations
3) independent executive agencies
4)independent regulatory commissions
executive departments headed by cabinet members called secretaries
-responsible for establishing departments general policy and operations
-directly responsible to president
-deputies under secretaries then assistants
-most departments divided into smaller units where real work is done.
|Lines that departments are divided||
by clientele, geography or work processes.
|Independent Executive Agencies||
-narrower responsibilities than cabinet
-perform services rather than regulatory functions
-appointed by president to serve at his pleasure
ex: NASA, EPA
|Independent regulatory commissions||
-regulate specific economic activity or interest
ex: National Relations Board (NLRD), Federal Reserve Board, Federal communications commission (FCC), Security and Exchange Commission (SEC).
-each headed by board consisting of 5-7 members
-picked by president fixed by senate staggered terms
-cannot be easily removed by president
-far removed from political issues
-most recent addition to bureaucracy
-businesses established by congress to perform functions that could be provided by private businesses. ex: Amtrak, (FDIC).
-charge fee for services
designed to prohibit federal employees from becoming directly involved in working for political candidates
|Federal Employees Political Activities Act (1993)||
allows employees to run for public office in nonpartisan elections, contribute money to political organizations and campaign for or against candidates in partisan elections
the process by which a low or policy is put into place
relatively stable relationships and patterns of interaction that occur among federal workers in agencies or departments, interest groups, and relevant congressional committees and subcommittees.
like iron triangles, include agency officials, members of congress, and interest group lobbyists but they also include lawyers, consultants, academics, public relations specialists and sometimes even the courts.
-constantly changing as members with technical expertise or newly interested parties become involved in issues
working groups created to facilitate the coordination of policy making and implementation across a host agencies
|Policy Coordinating Committees||
facilitate interaction among agencies and departments at the subcabinet level.
-purpose of all decision-making bodies is policy making
-some decisions happen formally and informally
ability of bureaucrats to make choices concerning best way to implement congressional or executive intentions; allow decision makers a lot of leeway. exercised through two formal processes
is a quasi-legislative process that results in regulations that have the characteristics of a legislative act.
are the rules that govern the operation of all government programs and have the force of law
essentially: bureaucratic rule makers often act as lawmakers as well as law enforcers
|1946 Administrative Procedures Act||
act requires that
1) public notice of time and, place, and nature of rule-making proceeding be provided in the Federal Register
2) interested parties be given the opportunity to submit written arguments and facts relevant to the rule
3) the statutory purpose and basis of the rule be stated.
quasi-judicial process in which a bureaucratic agency settles disputes between two parties in a manner similar to the way courts resolve disputes.