Poli Sci Chapter 9: Federal Bureaucracy Flashcards

United States Cabinet
Terms Definitions
Cabinet Secretaries
subject to approval by US senate but could only be removed by the president. Knew the president needed to be surrounded by people he trusts.
Spoils System
describes an executives ability to fire public-office holders of the defeated political party and replace them with loyalists
Patronage
jobs, grants, or other special favors given as rewards to friends and political allies for their support.
Merit System
Rutherford B Hays, system of employment based on qualifications, test scores and ability rather than loyalty
-rejected by congress
-someone got shot due to job competition
Civil Service Reform Act or Pendelton Act
established merit system of federal employment on the basis of open, competitive exams and created bipartisan three-member civil service commission
ICC (interstate commerce commission)
reacted to public outcries over rates charged by railroads
-became first independent regulatory commission
Independent regulatory commission
created by congress and are generally concerned with one aspect of the economy
-members appointed by president
-cannot be removed by president unless they fail to do their job
Roosevelt
government control of economy strengthened.
- department of commerce and labor, employer-employee relations
Federal Trade Commission (FTC)
protects small businesses from big businesses
Great Depression
-after WWI farmers had bad harvest, construction industry went down, bank failures
-stock market crash in 1929
-FDR created many agencies in response
G.I. Bill
WWII, provided college loans for returning veterans as well as low mortgage rates
National Government
-exist for public good
-gov leaders driven by reelection
-raises revenue from tax payer
Private Businesses
-make money
-driven by profit motive
-earn money from customers
Federal Bureaucrats
carrer government employees who work in the cabinet-level departments and independent agencies that comprise more than 2000 bureaus, divisions, branches, offices, services and other subunits of the federal government.
General Schedule
how employees are paid, they move into higher and higher salary levels as their careers progress
Civil Service System
lower level- jobs filled by written test
mid level- submit resumes online; rank candidates, only names "qualified". time-consuming and can take from 6-9 months
Not hired by Civil service system
10 percent. 3 categories 1) appointive policy-making positions 2) Independent regulatory commissioners 3) low-level, non policy patronage positions
Appointive policy-making positions
3,500. some including cabinet secretaries and assistant secretaries which are both subject to senate.
-responsible for appointing high-level policy making assistants who form top of bureaucratic hierarchy. "Schedule C: political appointees.
Independent Regulatory Commissioners
President gets to appoint as many as 100. They become independent of direct political influence once they take office
Low-level nonpolicy patronage positions
These types of positions generally concern secretarial assistants to policy makers
Presidential management fellows program
Training program desired to be enhanced so that there is not a concern about the high turnover of employees in certain positions. Many people do not want the higher jobs due to traveling, safety etc and they people holding the positions are getting older.
4 Different types of agencies
1) cabinet departments
2) government corporations
3) independent executive agencies
4)independent regulatory commissions
Cabin Departments
executive departments headed by cabinet members called secretaries
-responsible for establishing departments general policy and operations
-directly responsible to president
-deputies under secretaries then assistants
-most departments divided into smaller units where real work is done.
Lines that departments are divided
by clientele, geography or work processes.
Independent Executive Agencies
-narrower responsibilities than cabinet
-perform services rather than regulatory functions
-appointed by president to serve at his pleasure
ex: NASA, EPA
Independent regulatory commissions
-regulate specific economic activity or interest
ex: National Relations Board (NLRD), Federal Reserve Board, Federal communications commission (FCC), Security and Exchange Commission (SEC).
-each headed by board consisting of 5-7 members
-picked by president fixed by senate staggered terms
-cannot be easily removed by president
-far removed from political issues
Government Corporations
-most recent addition to bureaucracy
-businesses established by congress to perform functions that could be provided by private businesses. ex: Amtrak, (FDIC).
-charge fee for services
Hatch Act
designed to prohibit federal employees from becoming directly involved in working for political candidates
Federal Employees Political Activities Act (1993)
allows employees to run for public office in nonpartisan elections, contribute money to political organizations and campaign for or against candidates in partisan elections
Implementation
the process by which a low or policy is put into place
Iron Triangles
relatively stable relationships and patterns of interaction that occur among federal workers in agencies or departments, interest groups, and relevant congressional committees and subcommittees.
Issue Networks
like iron triangles, include agency officials, members of congress, and interest group lobbyists but they also include lawyers, consultants, academics, public relations specialists and sometimes even the courts.
-constantly changing as members with technical expertise or newly interested parties become involved in issues
Interagency Councils
working groups created to facilitate the coordination of policy making and implementation across a host agencies
Policy Coordinating Committees
facilitate interaction among agencies and departments at the subcabinet level.
-purpose of all decision-making bodies is policy making
-some decisions happen formally and informally
Administrative Discretion
ability of bureaucrats to make choices concerning best way to implement congressional or executive intentions; allow decision makers a lot of leeway. exercised through two formal processes
Rule Making
is a quasi-legislative process that results in regulations that have the characteristics of a legislative act.
Regulations
are the rules that govern the operation of all government programs and have the force of law
essentially: bureaucratic rule makers often act as lawmakers as well as law enforcers
1946 Administrative Procedures Act
act requires that
1) public notice of time and, place, and nature of rule-making proceeding be provided in the Federal Register
2) interested parties be given the opportunity to submit written arguments and facts relevant to the rule
3) the statutory purpose and basis of the rule be stated.
Administrative adjudication
quasi-judicial process in which a bureaucratic agency settles disputes between two parties in a manner similar to the way courts resolve disputes.
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