CCP 8th Grade Earth Science 1st Semester Exam Flashcards

Terms Definitions
gravity
(physics) the force of attraction between all masses in the universe
oceanography
the branch of science dealing with physical and biological aspects of the oceans
outer core
a layer of molten iron and nickel that surrounds the inner core of Earth
crust
the outer layer of the Earth
law of conservation of angular momentum
states that if no external torque acts on an object, then its angular momentum does not change
environmental geosciences
Scientific field concerned with applying the findings of geologic research to the problems of land use and civil engineering
meteorology
the earth science dealing with phenomena of the atmosphere (especially weather)
mantle
the layer of the earth between the crust and the core
lithosphere
the solid part of the earth consisting of the crust and outer mantle
geology
a science that deals with the history of the earth as recorded in rocks
astronomy
the branch of physics that studies celestial bodies and the universe as a whole
asthenosphere
the soft layer of the mantle on which the lithosphere floats
nebula
an immense cloud of gas (mainly hydrogen) and dust in interstellar space
inner core
a dense sphere of solid iron and nickel at the center of Earth
plasticity
the property of being physically malleable
density
the amount of matter in a given space
atom
(physics and chemistry) the smallest component of an element having the chemical properties of the element
ionic bond
a chemical bond in which one atom loses an electron to form a positive ion and the other atom gains to electron to form a negative ion
neutron
a subatomic particle that has no charge and that is found in the nucleus of an atom
crystal
a solid whose atoms, ions, or molecules are arranged in a definite pattern
metal
a mixture containing two or more metallic elements or metallic and nonmetallic elements usually fused together or dissolving into each other when molten
ion
atom that has a positive or negative charge
native mineral
a mineral that contains only one kind of atom and is therefore a pure element
covalent bond
a bond formed when atoms share one or more pairs of electrons
matter
that which has mass and occupies space
element
any of the more than 100 known substances (of which 92 occur naturally) that cannot be separated into simpler substances and that singly or in combination constitute all matter
molecule
(physics and chemistry) the simplest structural unit of an element or compound
compound
(chemistry) a substance formed by chemical union of two or more elements or ingredients in definite proportion by weight
mass number
the total number of protons and neutrons in the nucleus of an atom
proton
a subatomic particle that has a positive charge and that is found in the nucleus of an atom
mineral
a naturally occurring, inorganic solid that has a crystal structure and a definite chemical composition
atomic number
the number of protons in the nucleus of an atom
isotope
atoms of the same element that have different numbers of neutrons
nonmetal
a chemical element lacking typical metallic properties
electron
negatively charged particle; located outside the atomic nucleus
silicate
describes a mineral that contains silicon and oxygen and usually one or more other elements
cleavage
a mineral's ability to split easily along flat surfaces
ferromagnesian silicate
a silicate mineral containing atoms of iron and magnesium and dark in color
melting
change from a solid to a liquid
rock- forming minerals
the common minerals that make up most of the rocks in Earth's crust
chemical
produced by or used in a reaction involving changes in atoms or molecules
clastic
sedimentary rock that forms when rock fragments are squeezed together
metamorphic
Rocks changed by intense heat or extreme pressure
felsic
Describes magma or igneous rock that is rich in feldspars and silica and that is generally light in color.
intrusive
a type of ingneous rock that generally contains large crystals and forms when magma cools slowly beneath Earth's surface.
color
the appearance of objects (or light sources) described in terms of a person's perception of their hue and lightness (or brightness) and saturation
fracture
a crack in the earth's crust resulting from the displacement of one side with respect to the other
luster
the quality of giving off light, brightness, glitter, brilliance
specific gravity
ratio of a mineral's weight compared with the weight of an equal volume of water
organic
relating or belonging to the class of chemical compounds having a carbon basis
regional metamorphism
a change in the texture, structure, or chemical composition of a rock due to changes in temperature and pressure over a large area, generally as a result of tectonic forces
igneous
rock formed from cooled magma or lava
mafic
describes magma or igneous rock that is rich in magnesium and iron and that is generally dark in color
extrusive
fine-grained igneous rock that forms when magma cools quickly at or near Earth's surface
crystal shape
results from the way atoms or molecules come together as the mineral is forming
hardness
measure of how easily a mineral can be scratched
mica
any of various minerals consisting of hydrous silicates of aluminum or potassium etc. that crystallize in forms that allow perfect cleavage into very thin leaves
streak
the color of a mineral in powdered form
porphyry
igneous rock containing feldspar or quartz crystals
contact metamorphism
a change in the texture, structure, or chemical composition of a rock due to contact with magma
sedimentary
rock that is formed from layers of sediments that are pressed and squeezed together until it hardens
stratification
the process in which sedimentary rocks are arranged in layers
foliation
The metamorphic rock texture in which mineral grains are arranged in planes or bands.
feldspar
minerals that are the main component of most rocks on the earth's surface
alloy
a mixture containing two or more metallic elements or metallic and nonmetallic elements usually fused together or dissolving into each other when molten
mineralogy
the branch of geology that studies minerals: their structure and properties and the ways of distinguishing them
plutonic
refers to igneous rocks that have crystalized at greath depth
volcanic
igneous rock produced by eruption and solidified on or near the earth's surface
rock
a lump or mass of hard consolidated mineral matter
texture
the feel of a surface or a fabric
fossils
the perserved trace, imprint, or remains of a plant or animal
ore
a mineral or rock that contains a useful substance that can be mined for profit
craton
The ancient core of a continent usually the oldest and most ancient rock of a continent.
epicenter triangulation
The method of locating an epicenter by determining how far it lies from three widely separated seismographs.
subduction
a geological process in which one edge of a crustal plate is forced sideways and downward into the mantle below another plate
focus
the point inside the Earth where an earthquake begins
ring of fire
a major belt of volcanoes that rims the Pacific Ocean
p wave
A type of seismic wave that compresses and expands the ground.
continental collision
when two continental plates collide pushing the continental crust up to form mountains
diverging plate boundary
When two tectonic or lithospheric plates dived or move away from each other
earthquake
shaking and vibration at the surface of the earth resulting from underground movement along a fault plane of from volcanic activity
richter magnitude scale
A scale that is used to compare the strength of the earthquakes based upon the amount of energy released
seismograph
a measuring instrument for detecting and measuring the intensity and direction and duration of movements of the ground (as an earthquake)
s wave
a type of seismic wave that moves the ground up and down or side to side
converging plate boundary
A boundary in which two plates collide. The collision can be between two continents (continental collision), an relatively dense oceanic plate and a more buoyant continental plate (subduction zone) or two oceanic plates (subduction zone).
fault
(geology) a crack in the earth's crust resulting from the displacement of one side with respect to the other
plate tectonics
the theory that pieces of Earth's lithosphere are in constant motion, driven by convection currents in the mantle
epicenter
the point on Earth's surface directly above an earthquake's focus
mohorovicic discontinuity
the boundary between the earth's crust and the upper part of the Asthenosphere; seismic waves change speed at this boundary
seismogram
the record of an earthquake's seismic waves produced by a seismograph
l wave
slowest siesmic wave it moves thruogh the earths surface
protoplanet
An early state of a planet
protoplanet hypothesis
A widely accepted explanation for the formation of Earth and the solar system from the condensation of dust and other matter in the gases surrounding the sun.
eratosthenes
The head librarian at Alexandria during the third century B.C.; he was one of the first cartographers. Performed a remarkably accurate computation of the earth's circumference. He is also credited with coining the term "geography."
Theory of Continental Drift
The theory that the continents were once combined and then drifted apart.
atomic weight
the number of protons plus the number of neutrons
circumference
The distance around a circle
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