First Semester Midterm Flashcards

Terms Definitions
German submarine
Lord North
Capital of Quakers
James Oglethorpe
Founded georgia
dec 7 1941
pearl harbor
Wright Brothers?
First successful flight
invented first telescope;also helped prove copernicus's theory; looked at the moons of jupiter; threatened with excommunication unless he recanted his beliefs
present day Mesopotamia and Sumer
Age of Reason?
(1600 - 1800)
A Postierie-everything come from experience, science, chemistry, universe in random, equality
settlers of Plymouth Colony, who viewed themselves as spiritual wanderers
Middle Ages
Education, warfare, and Catholicism were characteristics of the Holy Roman Empire during the....
Spanish-American War 1898
causes, the war, results
demilitarized zone in eastern Germany that Hitler invaded, breaking the Treaty of Versailles
main product of the Middle Colonies
Northern democrat who opposed civil war
a 19th-century artistic movement in which writers and painters sought to show life as it is rather than life as it should be
the study of religion and God
Thomas Nast
german american editorial cartoonist who is said to be the father of american cartoons
Meiji Restoration
The political program that followed the destruction of the Tokugawa Shogunate in 1868, in which a collection of young leaders set Japan on the path of centralization, industrialization, and imperialism
Jane Addams
Prominent social reformer who was responsible for creating the Hull House. She helped other women join the fight for reform, as well as influencing the creation of other settlement houses.
"da vinci of the north"; artist, etc---helped spread the ideas of the renaissance to northern europe
1st follower of jesus who taught non-jews
Where did many Chinese immigrants settle?
Western Cities.
25th amendment
adopted in 1967 to establish procedures for filling vacancies in the office of president and vice president as well as providing for procedures to deal with the disability of a president.
who is an 18th century physiocract?
adam smith
religious beliefs of the people of India; developed around 1500 B.C.
Seneca Falls
An early and influential women's rights convention that adopted resolutions for women's rights
placed under seige by Union forces under Grant
Three-Fifths Compromise
Called for counting three-fifths of the slave population for representation and taxation.
Thomas Jefferson
Wrote the declaration of independence. 3rd President
a business owned by stockholders, who share in its profits but are not personally responsible for its debts
Society organization of the middle and lower class (2&3). A lord owns land and peasants (serfs) live on the land and work on it.
developed a new, realistic style of painting frescos
Southern Democrats
Realized they could regain political power by manipulating racial tensions.
supposedly said" i disapprove of what you have to saym but i will defend to the death your right to say it"
an economic system in which the factors of production are owned by the public and operate for the welfare of all
one of the key inducements used by party machines. A patronage job, promotion, or contract is one that is given for political reasons rather than for merit or competence alone.
ignatius loyola
founded the jesuit order of catholic priests---part of the catholic reformation which rebutted the protestant reformation
Julius Caesar
First a Governor then gained control of all positons in army and senate and became a dictator with great success but to much power was stabbed to death by other senators
Which leader of the Mongol Empire completed the conquest of China?
Kublai Khan
Roosevelt (Big Stick)
statement by Theodore Roosevelt that the United States had a right to intervene in Latin America to preserve law and order
-addition to the Monroe Doctrine
* US takes the role of the "police" in the Western Hemisphere
T.R use of the military- *MOST EFFECTIVE
a coordinate attack in 1968 throughout south vietnam that left US authorities taken by surprise
TET offensive
Holding a strong pride in ones own country
This new land law promised religious freedom, land free from slavery, and the protection of civil rights in the new lands west of the 13 states. This law also established the requirements for these new lands to eventually become states.
Northwest Ordinance
Supporters of _______ wanted the Us to stay out of intanglments is Europe.
cash crop
Crops raised to be sold for money
US legal tender note printed green on back
a movement founded in the 1890s to promote the establishment of Jewish homeland in Palestine
Alexander VI
1492-1503. WORST POPE EVER. Had kids when he was pope and used them (especially his daughter) to advance himself. Went to war with Charles VIII of France because he wants Naples. Has alliances with Muslim princes against Catholic France.
The number of delegates who signed the Constitution.
hwich colony was put under martial law in 1774
5.1One example of a new invention that changed communications is...
...the telephone
Leviathon by Hobbes
Equality. State of War=state of nature. People=greedy. Freedom. Covenant=between people+people. Ruler not obligated. Give up rights. Absolute gov. No Rebellion
spreading of ideas to help a cause or hurt an opposing cause
Hundred Years War
war between France and England over land in France that England claims to own
What two European nations agreed to divide the New World of North and South America between them in 1494?
Spain and Portugal
fireside chats
informal talks given by FDR over the radio; sat by White House fireplace; gained the confidence of the people
Treaty signed in 1972 between the U.S. and the USSR. This agreement limited the number of missiles in each nation and led to the SALT II discussions and a slowdown of the arms race between the two countries.
Slave trade in the Americas. Wanted to get more rich. went around Mississippi area to find gold
Hernandode Soto
William Jennings Bryan(c)
candidate for president in 1896 for the populist and democrats
joint-stock company
company backed by people who put money into a project to earn profits
Berlin Conference
Since the scramble for Africa was so competitive among European countries, to prevent conflict 14 nations met here to lay down rules for the division of Africa. They agreed any European country could claim land in Africa by notifying other nations of its claims and showing it could control the area. African ethnic or linguistic groups were disturbed by this and no African ruler was invited to attend the meetings. Liberia and Ethiopia remained free from European control.
Justinian's Corpus
First library of the law. Put together by Justinian.
Progressive Movement

What: Time when there was a call for reform to solve conflict. Helped women suffrage. 
When: End of 1800’s beginning of 1900’s
Liberty Affair
1. ship belonging to John Hancock is seized
2. British thought that it was carrying smuggled goods
3. anger unites many colonists against British 
At the same time, Parliament passed the ____ __ ________ which increased Parliament's powers and the rights of the people
Bill of Rights
Pendleton Act
Passed in 1883, an Act that created a federal civil service so that hiring and promotion would be based on merit rather than patronage.
When did the Neolithic Revolution occur?
The Neolithic Revolution occurred around 10000 B.C.
Congress of Industrial Organizations
organized joint unions of all workers within certain industries (ex. the auto industries union)
What was formed to hold the stock of weaker companies which put business power in fewer hands?
Holding companies
Domino Theory
the idea that if a nation falls under Communist control, nearby nations will also fall under Communist control
Agriculture Revolution
helped make up for the food loss when bigger animals like the mammoth became extinct.
William Jennings Bryan
Democrat who first ran in the election of 1896 against Mckinley and lost. he is famous for his Cross of Gold speech
Johann Wolfgang von Goethe
German author of The Sorrows of Young Werther
General Congress said to round up Samuel Adams and John Hancock. Said to stop the attack
Battles of Lexington and Concord
50. Who was Ataturk?
He was a turk who helped modernize Turkey.
According to the Zimmerman telegram, if Mexico joined forces with Germany, Germany would?
Help Mexico get back Texas, New Mexico, and Arizona.
72. What are some of the problems facing developing nations today?
1. Geography2. Population and Poverty3. Economics and Politics4. Global Environmental Challenges
14. Explain the impact of the Agricultural Revolution in Enland in the late 1700's.
They mixed different soils for higher crops, and rotated them. They made larger fields that could be cultivated more easily. -Profits rose-Population grew rapidly
23. What was the result of the Meiji Restoration on Japan?
Modernized rapidly, and brought them economically up to the US so that they were strong enough to compete.
Aggressive nationalism
San Diego
"laberatory of democracy"
Vasco de Gama
18 amendment
Prohibition of alcohol
Reformer in scotland
John knox
medici family
controlled city of Florence;
lower class, usually small farmers
John huss?
Burned at the stake
Different Calvinist groups
Presbyterian-Scotland, Reformed Christians=lowlands, Huguenots= france, Puritans=Eng, Amish/Quakers=lowlands
Economic system whereby the government intervenes in the economy for the purpose of increasing national wealth
Old immigrants were from?
North Western Europe.
dorothea lange
United States photographer remembered for her portraits of rural workers during the Depression (1895-1965)
The President's refusal of a bill
Virginia City
boomtown near the Comstock Lode
Group united usually for political purposes
an Indian soldier serving under British command
where the Eastern Slavs settled. Originally ruled by the Vikings, before the Mongols conquered the area. Alexander Nevsky was eventually awarded title of Grand-Prince and his descendants became the rulers of Russia
represented by Roscoe Conkling. they opposed reform and civil service
Total war
channeling of a nation's entire resources into a war effort
Triple Entente
An alliance between Great Britain, France and Russia in the years before WWI.
blind poet who wrote Iliad and Odyssey
Johannes Gutenburg
German who invented the printing press
What religious organization was the reformers of the Protestant Reformation protesting against?
Roman Catholicism
political success
party primaries; decline of machine policies, votes for women, direct election of senators (17th amendment), women's vote (19th amendment)
the leader of the free french
de gaulle
Fertile Crescent
area AROUND Tigres and Euphrates Rivers where agriulture was rich
glass ceiling
Invisible barrier based on attitudinal or organizational bias in the work force that prevents minorities and women from advancing to leadership positions
The first Europeans to arrive in American came from ______.
individual rights
privileges and freedoms of every person
a legislature consisting of two parts, or houses
Suez Canal
a human-made waterway, which was opened in 1869, connecting the Red Sea and the Mediterranean Sea
Daughter of Alexander VI. He marries her of multiple times for political advancement. When he needs her again, he has her poison her husband so that he dies.
Peace of Augsburg
the agreement that officially recognized the division of Christianity in Germany and ended the religious warfare. This allowed the German states to be able to choose between being Catholic or Lutheran and gave Lutheran states the same rights as Catholic states
Booker T Washington
Atlanta Compromise address Washington urged blacks to accomidate themselves to segregations and push for equality.
If a government does not protect these rights, it is broken the contract with the people, and the people should ______ it
the systematic killing of an entire people
Tossed Salad
no poltically correct term to describe America because now it has individual countries to make up a good mix of things.
Diet of Worms
assembly when martin luther was pressured to recant his beliefs----he refused---and was excommunicated
Hagia Sophia
Dome church in Constantinople built by Justintian (holy worship main form of worship)
According to this system, a lord gave vassals land in exchange for military and other services.
dust bowl
Region of the Great Plains that experienced a drought in 1930 lasting for a decade, leaving many farmers without work or substantial wages.
what phrase describes the philosophy of voltaire?
freedom of speech
Tehran Conference
Where FDR, Churchill, and Stalin met to discuss ending the war. Russia agreed to attack Germany if U.K. and U.S. helped from the western front
Congress organized the judicial branch. It had a six-person Supreme Court with one chief justice and five associates. Washington named John Jay as the first chief justice of the United States. Congress also created district courts and courts of appeal.
Judiciary Act of 1789
Henry Comstock
prospector who staked a claim in six-mile Canyon, Nevada
Charles G Finney
pioneered many new methods of revivalism that evangelists still use today
indentured servant
Worker who exchanged labor for help getting started in America
Harriet Beecher Stowe
Uncle Tom's Cabin, abolitionist and novelist.
Son of Pepin the Short. Most famous Carolingian king. 768-814.
Labor Unions

Who: Samuel Gompers (head of the American Federation of Labors)
What: Organization of workers that banded together to achieve common goals such as better working conditions.
When: major increase in participants in 1917
Where: In America
Why: The AFL unions strongly encouraged their young men to enlist in the military, and fiercely opposed efforts to reduce recruiting and slow war production
Great Migration
the time when many puritans left England in the 1630's to find religious freedom
8.1One advantage European countries had in their imperial expansion was...
...powerful armies and navies.
Henry 8
Older brother Arthur supposed to be king. King @ 17+take Catherine as wife w/ papal pardon. Make Eng. legit country. Create COE
Bill of Rights
a statement of fundamental rights and privileges (especially the first ten amendments to the United States Constitution)
Pope Gregory I
Pope who converted the Anglo-Saxons to Christianity, sent monks throughout England and started the Church
John Hus
He was burned at the stake for heresy.
Great Depression
the economic crisis and period of low business activity in the U.S. and other countries, roughly beginning with the stock-market crash in October, 1929, and continuing through most of the 1930s.
Massive Retaliation
Acts of aggression against the US will lead to Nuclear war
All powers not given to the government are reserved for the states
Reserved Powers
Langston Hughes
writter who became a leading voice of the African American experience
triangular trade
Name given to a trading route with three stops
Sepoy Mutiny
An outbreak of when the sepoys who refused to accept the cartridges that were greased with beef and pork (Muslims did not eat pork, hindus considered cow sacred) were thrown in jail and then the sepoys rebeelled and captured Delhi. The rebellion spread to Norther/Central India.
New Urban Social Organiziation.
Based on wealth rather than occupation.1) Greater Merchants2) Lesser Merchants3) Tradesmen, skilled laborers a. masters b. journeymen c. apprentices4) Day Laborers5) Beggars
Council of Trent
was established to reform the Church and to help reestablish trust in the Church
Henry Hudson
Discovered the Hudson Bay Area and was controlled by British
English sailor sailing for holland
sailed to present day albany
sailed again but for england
hudson river/bay named for him 
6th amendment
the right to a fair and speedy trial
Immigrants during WW1
Many ill feelings to immigrants due to the extreme nationalism towards america
Which of the following represents the correct order (high to low) of the Roman social order?
Senators, Equestrians, Plebian, Slaves
Freedom Riders
rode buses down to the south as a symbol of ending bus segregation
Which act made it illegal for Americans to sell arms to any country at war?
Neutrality Act of 1935
June 6, 1944 – the day on which the Allies began their invasion of the European mainland during World War II
Women, and Africans
The two groups of people brought to America for the first time to stabilize the Virginia Colony in the 17th Century.
Paha Sapa- BLack hills
the whites discovered that the black hills contained much gold, but it was a sacred indian holy land. it would lead to the treaty with Sioux and later the battle of little bighorn
Industrial Revolution begins here
In Britain, because it had a growing population and large deposits of coal and iron
This act created new positions in the judicial branch. Departing President John Adams hurried to fill them with Federalists.
Judiciary Act of 1801
The Fountain of Youth
Ponce de Leon explored for this, but was never able to find it.
What was the mekhane (crane) used for in Greek plays?
For actors playing the gods
25. Nationalism as a Unifying force.
-Demanding of a unified German state from the French.-Encourage modernization.
35. Interdependence. Example of how it affects the world economy?
The dependence of countries of goods, resources, and knowledge from other parts of the world.-Helps stop disease faster, and protect other countries in the "pack".
68. How was the role of NATO changed since the end of the Cold war?
To guarantee the security and territorial integrity of member states.
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