Congress of Vienna, Liberation Movements in Latin America, Agricultural Revolution, Industrial Revolution, and (Irish) Potato Famine Flashcards

Terms Definitions
boyar
French upper class
What beat Napoleon?
Russia and the scorched earth
Henry Kissinger
one of th most brilliant people still alive - he studied Klemens
When was the Congress of Vienna?
September 1814 to Jun 1815 (late 1814 to mid 1815), disrupted half way through by Napoleon's 100 Days forcing them to stop what they were doing
Winner takes
all
In 1814 Napoleon's enemies began celebrating but then
Napoleon escaped Elba
Napoleon's peak was in
1810, when he had control of approximately half of Europe
Von in a person's name (ex: Klemens von Meternick) means
nobility or noble class
Who were major players in the Congress of Vienna?
Austria-Hungary, Russia, Prussia, and Britain
Who represented Austria-Hungary at the Congress of Vienna?
Prince/Court Klemens von Meternick - most important at the Congress
Who represented Russia at the Congress of Vienna?
Alexander I - the Czar - who decided to attack when Napoleon faked a retreat at the Battle of Austerlitz
Who represented Prussia at the Congress of Vienna?
Prince Karl August von Hardenburg - of the Hohenzollen dynasty
Who represented Britain at the Congress of Vienna?
Arthur Wellsley who took out Napoleon and therefore was made the Duke of Wellington after the Battle of Waterloo
At the Congress of Vienna, France and Spain were
originally not supposed to be there as they lost
Talleyrand
a French diplomat allowed to be at the Congress of Vienna about half way through, him being forced there proved his diplomatic skills
The Congress of Vienna was an
international conference called to repair Europe after Napoleon's downfall
The goals of the Congress of Vienna were
to reestablish territorial devision and power in Europe, to restore the old order (the Ancien Regime), to put Europe back together, and to erase the Revolution
The outcomes of the Congress of Vienna were
overall success (peace for 40 years in Europe), territories won by Napoleon were taken from France, Britain got colonies and controlled the water, Louis XVIII was restored as the ruler of France, Dutch Republic united with the Netherlands, Norway and Sweden joined under one ruler, Switzerland was declared neutral, Russia got Finland and control of Poland, Prussia was given much of Saxony and important parts of Westphalia and the Rhine province (part of Germany), Austria was given back most of their lost territory and given land in Germany and Italy (Lombardia and Venice), and Spain restored under Ferdinand VII
Why was there no Louis XVII?
Because Louis XVI was the last ruler and his children died mysteriously in prison so the title Louis XVII was skipped out of respect
Simon Bolivar
from Venezuela 1783, spoke Spanish, lived in "New Spain" (colonies), was a creole, rich parents owned a plantation but died when he was younger and left him money, went to college/studied in Spain during the Napoleonic Era and got bit by the revolutionary bug "liberty, equality, fraternity" (Guiseppe - Napoleon's brother - was on the throne of Spain), returned to New Spain (South America) and started a war of independence (not really a revolution because creoles were on top before and after it took place), Spain was defeated, the newly created republics that resulted from his actions were Venezuela, Columbia (after Columbus), Panama (which was part of Columbia), Peru, Upper Peru (which was later named Bolivia in Bolivar's honor), and Ecuador, after 5 years the native troops had won, he resigned in 1830, his liberation movements were mostly in the Northern half of South America
Why is Venezuela called Venezuela?
Columbus named it on his 4th voyage because it reminded him of Venice
Creole
born in the new world to Spanish parents, middle class but considered upper class
Mestizo
born to Spanish and Native American parents - considered lower class and not treated well
Peninsular
from Spain - upper class
Jose de San Marin/Joseph of Saint Martin
wealthy creole, born in southern South America, traveled to Spain, basically a mirror image of Bolivar but in southern rather than northern South America therefore the difference were where they liberated and this man liberated Argentina, Chile, Paraguay, and Uruguay, this man crossed the Andes mountains to meet Bolivar
The spine of South America is
the Andes Mountains
Hispanola
the island that is split between poor, French speaking Haiti and Spanish speaking Dominican Republic
Portugal controlled
Brasil/Brazil because they stumbled upon it before any major European powers
Brazil/Brasil is named after a
tree
Dom Pedro III
was the son of the king of Portugal, when his father sailed to Portugal (the mother country), this man usurped power, making Brasil an independent republic and breaking ties with the mother country
Toussaint L'ouverture
a former slave who was self-educated (could read and write), and who led a slave army who revolted when Napoleon sent 750,000 men to reestablish slavery in Haiti after the Jacobins freed the slaves, the slave army held the French at bay, the French tricked this man saying they wanted to have a meeting but they enslaved him on the France/Switzerland border where this man could not take the cold and died, Haiti remained free (no slaves), it was the first colony in the Americas (besides the United States) to become free
Why were the Haiti slaves freed by the Jacobins?
they felt that that they couldn't say equality and have slave states
Why did Napoleon want to reinstate slavery in Haiti?
He wanted the sugar plantations that were in Haiti
Dom means
somebody of ranking
Miguel Hidalgo
a priest, mestizo, poor an, who lived in Mexico, tried to free it but did not succeed and was executed, he was not very well educated, he wanted independence and greater rights for mestizos
Hidalgo means
nobleman but Miguel Hidalgo was not a nobleman
Agrarian means
having to do with agriculture
Horsepower
is the term used to measure the strength of a machine as horses used to power machines
In 1900
90% of Americans lived/worked on farms and now 1.5% do
The Agricultural Revolution had to come before the Industrial Revolution because
the agricultural revolution made machines do the work of several people, leaving opportunities to have less people work on farms and more live in cities and work in factories
Jethro Tull
invented the seed drill, a machine that put evenly spaced, deep holes in the ground for seeds, doing the work of 3 men, that was more efficient than people, replaced hand work
Crop Rotation
the farming process that avoids depletion of soil nutrients by successively rotating crops from field to field, year to year, because certain crops use certain soil nutrients
Fallow means
plowed and left unseeded for a season
Fallow System
when one of a farmer's fields is plowed and left unseeded for a season to let the land replenish itself
Charles (or Robert) "Turnip" Townsend
was the man who introduced turnips and nitrate producing crops to Europe, the method was popularized in Europe as it replaced leaving the land fallow - it let farmers produce a crop (even if it was not really eaten by people but rather fed to livestock), it was better than leaving land fallow, it put nutrients back into the soil
Cottage System
the system where families created their own assembly lines in their homes, their cottages, without machines, a method used before the Industrial Revolution, people were self-sufficient, less efficient than factories, things they made included shoes and clothes
Manufacture is
associated with machines but manu means hand
The potato is from
the Andes Mountains
Spinning Jenny
a machine created in 1764 by James Hargreaves that was a multi-spool spinning wheel that increase efficiency because it had up to 8 or 9 spools allowing more threads and colors and increases productivity for the cottage system
Steam Engine
boil water with coal to make steam which pushes pistons up and down and makes an arm like thing move therefore moving about 100 tons of train
James Watt
an early forerunner of the steam engine
Robert Fulton
created the steam boat - a boat can now go up river
Henry Bessemer
figured out how to mass produce steel
Luddites
a group that opposed machines because they only saw the immediate effect of people unemployed so they sometimes went out and smashed seed drills and other machines at night (England), worried about mass unemployment
Cotton Gin
created by Eli Whitney in America, a machine that separated cotton fibers from the bud - people would not have to get injured from this process anymore
Where did the Industrial Revolution take place?
mainly in England although some happened in America and Germany and a little in France
Factory System
engines, BIG machines, people left their homes and went to work in factories, assembly lines were used and people did one job over and over again to make a product
Soviet
Russian working union- Russia later became the Soviet Union
The Potato Famine took place
mainly in Ireland but also in Germany, Poland, and Russia
The Russians used potatoes to make
vodka
Genocide
extermination of a group of people based on race, religion, ethnicity, etc.
Potatoes are also known as
spuds
Some people call the British reaction of the Irish Potato Famine
genocide but it is not really - it is more negligent
Diet of Irish
approximately 90% of the Irish population (mostly poor) ate potatoes as their staple food, it was about 95% of their diet, about 12-14 pounds of potatoes per day, they were able to eat that much because they did manual labor
Late Blight Fungus
the disease that caused the potato famine as it killed the crop, in about the first year potatoes could still be eaten as they were not completely ruined but then they became completely inedible
English conquered
Ireland around 1200 AD - the Irish remained Catholic after England (under Henry VIII) broke with the Church of Rome in 1530s, Ireland is England's first and last colony as a corner of Ireland is still controlled by the British
While England was ruled by Cromwell, Ireland tried to
get back at them because England was in disarray and weakened but Cromwell kept Ireland at bay by sending troops, if someone defeated Irish Cromwell gave them the land of those Irish, Cromwell granted land to the British who killed Irish so many British became land lords - absentee land lords as they lived in England not Ireland
English and Irish do not like each other because
British are the land lords to the Irish although they do not live there, Ireland was/is a colony of England
Irish payed the rent to land lords with
cash crops such as wheat, barley, and rye, called cash crops because they are worth money
Results of the Irish Potato Famine - people
1 million people died and 1.5 million people immigrated
British land lords evict the Irish
so they raised sheep to make wool as there was more wool needed for the Industrial Revolution
The British could have responded to the Potato Famine by
telling their tenants to keep the cash crops to eat and to pay back the rent later and could have repealed the Corn Laws
What did the British actually do?
They established shelters for the homeless, starving Irish (2 years after the famine began) but they separated the men from the women and children to humiliate them
Corn Laws
in response to Napoleon's Continental System, the British made high tariffs on grains from Europe because they were able to get food from their colonies, they did this to hurt Napoleon's allies who would not be able to sell to people in Britain or Britain's colonies, the British could have repealed these laws after Napoleon's death and cheap grain would have come in allowing the Irish to eat but they did not
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