20th century american novels final Flashcards

Terms Definitions
F. Scott Fitzgerald
a novelist and chronicler of the jazz age. his wife, zelda and he were the "couple" of the decade but hit bottom during the depression. his noval THE GREAT GATSBY is considered a masterpiece about a gangster's pursuit of an unattainable rich girl.
Great Gatsby Point of View
Nick Carraway narrates in both first and third person, presenting only what he himself observes. Nick alternates sections where he presents events objectively, as they appeared to him at the time, with sections where he gives his own interpretations of the story's meaning and of the motivations of the other characters.
Great Gatsby Narrator
Nick Carraway; Carraway not only narrates the story but implies that he is the book's author
Great Gatsby Tone
Nick's attitudes toward Gatsby and Gatsby's story are ambivalent and contradictory. At times he seems to disapprove of Gatsby's excesses and breaches of manners and ethics, but he also romanticizes and admires Gatsby, describing the events of the novel in a nostalgic and elegiac tone.
Great Gatsby Setting
summer 1922 West Egg
Great Gatsby Protagonist
Gatsby and/or Nick
Great Gatsby Major Conflict
Gatsby has amassed a vast fortune in order to win the affections of the upper-class Daisy Buchanan, but his mysterious past stands in the way of his being accepted by her.
Great Gatsby Rising Action
Gatsby's lavish parties, Gatsby's arrangement of a meeting with Daisy at Nick's
Great Gatsby Climax
There are two possible climaxes: Gatsby's reunion with Daisy in Chapters 5-6; the confrontation between Gatsby and Tom in the Plaza Hotel in Chapter 7.
Great Gatsby Falling Action
Daisy's rejection of Gatsby, Myrtle's death, Gatsby's murder
Great Gatsby Themes
The decline of the American dream, the spirit of the 1920s, the difference between social classes, the role of symbols in the human conception of meaning, the role of the past in dreams of the future
Great Gatsby Motifs
The connection between events and weather, the connection between geographical location and social values, images of time, extravagant parties, the quest for wealth
Great Gatsby Symbols
The green light on Daisy's dock, the eyes of Doctor T. J. Eckleburg, the valley of ashes, Gatsby's parties, East Egg, West Egg
Great Gatsby Foreshadowing
The car wreck after Gatsby's party in Chapter 3, Owl Eyes's comments about the theatricality of Gatsby's life, the mysterious telephone calls Gatsby receives from Chicago and Philadelphia
Nick Carraway
The novel's narrator, he is a young man from Minnesota who, after being educated at Yale and fighting in World War I, goes to New York City to learn the bond business.
Jay Gatsby
The title character and protagonist of the novel, he is a fabulously wealthy young man living in a Gothic mansion in West Egg. He is famous for the lavish parties he throws every Saturday night, but no one knows where he comes from, what he does, or how he made his fortune.
Daisy Buchanan
Nick's cousin, and the woman Gatsby loves. As a young woman in Louisville before the war, she was courted by a number of officers, including Gatsby. She fell in love with Gatsby and promised to wait for him. However, she harbors a deep need to be loved, and when a wealthy, powerful young man named Tom Buchanan asked her to marry him, she decided not to wait for Gatsby after all.
Tom Buchanan
Daisy's immensely wealthy husband, once a member of Nick's social club at Yale. Powerfully built and hailing from a socially solid old family, he is an arrogant, hypocritical bully. His social attitudes are laced with racism and sexism, and he never even considers trying to live up to the moral standard he demands from those around him
Jordan Baker
Daisy's friend, a woman with whom Nick becomes romantically involved during the course of the novel. A competitive golfer, she represents one of the "new women" of the 1920s—cynical, boyish, and self-centered. she is beautiful, but also dishonest: she cheated in order to win her first golf tournament and continually bends the truth.
Myrtle Wilson
Tom's lover, whose lifeless husband George owns a run-down garage in the valley of ashes. She herself possesses a fierce vitality and desperately looks for a way to improve her situation. Unfortunately for her, she chooses Tom, who treats her as a mere object of his desire.
George Wilson
Myrtle's husband, the lifeless, exhausted owner of a run-down auto shop at the edge of the valley of ashes. He loves and idealizes Myrtle, and is devastated by her affair with Tom. He is consumed with grief when Myrtle is killed. He comparable to Gatsby in that both are dreamers and both are ruined by their unrequited love for women who love Tom.
Owl Eyes
Drunk man who Nick meets at at Gatsby's party; says the books are real' only one to attend Gatsby's funeral
Klipspringer
The shallow freeloader who seems almost to live at Gatsby's mansion, taking advantage of his host's money. As soon as Gatsby dies, he disappears—he does not attend the funeral, but he does call Nick about a pair of tennis shoes that he left at Gatsby's mansion.
A Farewell to Arms
E. Hemingway. A love story which draws heavily on the author's experiences as a young soldier in Italy. Lieutenant Frederic Henry, a young American ambulance driver during WWI. Falls in love with nurse Catherine Barkley. The Battle of Caporetto. In Switzerland, their child is born dead, and Catherine dies due to hemorrhages.
A Farewell to Arms point of view
Henry narrates the story in the first person but sometimes switches to the second person during his more philosophical reflections. Henry relates only what he sees and does and only what he could have learned of other characters from his experiences with them.
A Farewell to Arms Setting
1916-1918, in the middle of World War I in Italy and Switzerland
A Farewell to Arms Tone
As the autobiographical nature of the work suggests, Hemingway's apparent attitude toward the story is identical to that of the narrator.
A Farewell to Arms Theme
The grim reality of war, the relationship between love and pain, feelings of loss
A Farewell to Arms Motifs
Masculinity, games and divertissement, loyalty versus abandonment, illusions and fantasies, alcoholism
A Farewell to Arms Symbols
While Hemingway avoids the sort of symbol that neatly equates an object with some lofty abstraction, he offers many powerfully evocative descriptions that often resonate with several meanings. Among these are the rain, which scares Catherine and into which Henry walks at the end of the novel; Henry's description of her hair; the painted horse; and the silhouette cutter Henry meets on the street.
A Farewell to Arms Foreshadowing
Catherine's conviction that dreadful things are going to occur; the rainfall that scares her in the night; the doctor's warning that Catherine's hips are narrow; Henry's musing on how life kills the good, the gentle, and the brave
Ernest Hemingway
He fought in Italy in 1917. He later became a famous author who wrote "The Sun Also Rises" (about American expatriates in Europe) and "A Farewell to Arms." In the 1920's he became upset with the idealism of America versus the realism he saw in World War I. He was very distraught, and in 1961 he shot himself in the head.
Lieutenant Frederic Henry
The novel's narrator and protagonist. A young American ambulance driver in the Italian army during World War I, he meets his military duties with quiet stoicism.
Catherine Barkley
An English nurse's aide who falls in love with Henry. She is exceptionally beautiful and possesses, perhaps, the most sensuously described hair in all of literature. When the novel opens, her grief for her dead fiancé launches her headlong into a playful, though reckless, game of seduction. Her feelings for Henry soon intensify and become more complicated, however, and she eventually swears lifelong fidelity to him.
Rinaldi
A surgeon in the Italian army. Mischievous, wry, and oversexed, he is Henry's closest friend. Although he is a skilled doctor, his primary practice is seducing beautiful women. When Henry returns to Gorizia, he tries to whip up a convivial atmosphere.
The Priest
A kind, sweet, young man who provides spiritual guidance to the few soldiers interested in it. Often the butt of the officers' jokes, he responds with good-natured understanding. Through Henry's conversations with him regarding the war, the novel challenges abstract ideals like glory, honor, and sacredness.
Helen Ferguson
A nurse's aide who works at the American hospital and a dear friend of Catherine. Though she is friendly and accepting of Henry and Rinaldi's visits to Catherine early in the novel, her hysterical outburst over Henry and Catherine's "immoral" affair establishes her as an unhappy woman who is paranoid about her friend's safety and anxious about her own loneliness.
Miss Gage
An American nurse who helps Henry through his recovery at the hospital in Milan. At ease and accepting, she becomes a friend to Henry, someone with whom he can share a drink and gossip.
Miss Van Campen
The superintendent of nurses at the American hospital in which Catherine works. She is strict, cold, and unpleasant. She disapproves of Henry and remains on cool terms with him throughout his stay.
Dr. Valentini
An Italian surgeon who comes to the American hospital to contradict the hospital's opinion that Henry must wait six months before having an operation on his leg. In agreeing to perform surgery the next morning, displays the kind of self-assurance and confidence that Henry (and the novel) celebrates.
Count Greffi
A spry, ninety-four-year-old nobleman. He represents a more mature version of Henry's character and Hemingway's masculine ideal. He lives life to the fullest and thinks for himself. Though he dismisses the label "wise," Henry clearly values his thoughts and sees him as a sort of father figure.
Ettore Moretti
An American soldier from San Francisco. He, like Henry, fights for the Italian army. Unlike Henry, however, he is an obnoxious braggart. Quick to instigate a fight or display the medals that he claims to have worked so hard to win, he believes in and pursues the glory and honor that Henry eschews.
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