Biology of the Sauropod Dinosaurs: Understanding the Life of Giants Flashcards

Terms Definitions
cropping
animal raking off the leaves of a twig, leaving behind the less digestible, woody shoots
leaf cuticle
major barrier for microbial access
mastication
breaking down food
gastric mill
thick-walled muscular pouch below the crop in many birds and reptiles for grinding food; contains gastroliths
gastrolith
stone ingested by an animal to aid in digestion
autoenzymatic
material is digested with the enzymes of the animal
alloenzymatic
material can only be digested with the help of gut microbes
foregut fermentation
microbial fermentation takes place in the foregut; can only function at low intake levels; fats are saturated in foreguts before they are absorbed; problematic for ontogenetic diet shifts (because foreguts only digest plant matter)
hindgut fermentation
microbial fermentation takes place in the hindgut, mainly the colon; can operate in both low and high food intake levels; allows an ontogenetic diet shift
chronostratigraphy
date of rocks
araucariaceae
tall evergreen cone-bearing trees of South America and Australia with broad leathery leaves
equisetum
horsetails
cheirolepidiaceae
an extinct group of conifers that was constituent of global floras during the mesozoic
ginkgophytes
ginkgoes
podocarpaceae
gymnosperms with simple persistent needlelike or scalelike leaves; mostly evergreen conifers
cupressaceae
cypresses and junipers and many cedars
pinaceae
Largest pinophyta family, includes pines, firs, spruces, hemlocks, true cedars
marattiaceae
a family of tropical ferns, with either leaves arising near ground level from an underground rhizome or elevated to the top of a tree-like trunk
osmundaceae
family of temperate to subtropical ferns that form fronds near ground level, or sometimes at the top of tree-like stems; prefer moist conditions in open or closed-canopy habitats
cycadophytes
contains cycadales and benettitales; have evergreen, pinnately compound fronds; stems come from stout or tall upright trunks that are covered with a mantle of hard, woody leaf bases
pteridosperms
Seed ferns; have fern-like foliage, but bear seeds
gymnosperm
plants having seeds not enclosed in an ovary
angiosperm
plants having seeds in a closed ovary; a flowering plant
rhizome
a horizontal plant stem with shoots above and roots below serving as a reproductive structure
trachea
windpipe; membranous tube with cartilaginous rings that conveys inhaled air from the larynx to the bronchi
parabronchi
tiny, gas -exchange channels in the lungs
capillaries
smallest blood vessel; brings nutrients and oxygen to the tissues and absorbs carbon dioxide and waste products
Brownian motion
mollecular movement; the random motion of small particles suspended in a gas or liquid
bauplan
structural type or blueprint
bronchus
either of the two main branches of the trachea that direct air into the lungs
parenchyma
animal tissue that constitutes the essential part of an organ as contrasted with e.g. connective tissue and blood vessels
postpulmonary system
membrane that stabilizes the lung; lacks muscle tissue
posthepatic system
membrane that stabilizes the lung; arises posterior to the liver and makes a compartment containing both the lungs and the liver
m. diaphragmaticus
a crocodilian muscle that is the equivalent of the diaphragm in mammals; aids in respiration and aquatic locomotion
ostia
pores through which blood enters the heart
pleurocoels
holes in the presacral vertebra that greatly decreased the weight of the massive skeletons of Sauropods while maintaining skeletal strength
saccular
having the form of a sac; divided into a series of pouches
pulmonary edema
fluid filling of the spaces around the alveoli, eventually flooding into the alveoli
alveoli
tiny sacs of lung tissue specialized for the movement of gases between air and blood
hemodynamic
pertaining to the study of the heart's ability to function as a pump
vascular
of or relating to or having vessels that conduct and circulate fluids
capitulum
a round knob-like process on the lateral distal humerus
endothermic
describes the ability to maintain body temperature through internal heat
ectothermic
organism is dependent on external heat
homeothermic
organism maintains a stable internal body temperature independent of its environment
poikilothermic
internal temperatures may vary, often matching the temperature of the environment
tachymetabolic
animals with high resting metabolic rates
bradymetabolic
animals with low resting metabolic rates and high metabolic rates during activity
gigantothermic
describes an organism that is homeothermic due to the size of an animal; also known as mass homeothermy and inertial homeothermy
Diplodicoidea
clade within Eusauropoda that includes rebbachiosaurids, diplodoicds, and dicraeosaurids
Macronaria
clade within Eusauropoda that includes the Camarasauridae and the Titanosauriformes
amphicoelous
centrum is concave anteriorly and posteriorly
opisthocoelus
centrum is convex anteriorly and concave posteriorly
graviportal
limb elements are oriented vertically and placed directly under the body
osteon
basic functional unit of compact bone
cancellous bone
spongy, porous, bone tissue in the inner part of a bone
cortical bone
hard, dense, strong bone that forms the outer layer of bone; also called compact bone
woven bone
has no collagen layers instead a random orientation of bundles of collagen fibers, immature bone
lamellar bone
mature bone present in normal adult stages; collagen fibers are perfectly arranged in a parallel pattern
anisotropic
not possessing the same properties in all directions
diagenesis
a collective term for all the chemical, physical, and biological changes that take place after sediments are deposited and during and after lithification
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