ESL Praxis - Linquistics Flashcards

Phoneme
Terms Definitions
Phonology
The way sounds function within a given language or across languages to encode meaning
Phonetics
The matching of a symbol with a phoneme. (matching a letter with a sound)
Phoneme
An abstract unit of speech sound that can distinguish words. Changing this within a word can produce another word.
Phoneme Substitution
When one phoneme is constantly switched with another in speech - i.e. shair for chair
Minimal Pairs
A pair of words that differ by only a single sound and are recognized by speakers as different words. i.e. bat/cat or hare/dare
Allophone
One of several similar speech sounds that belong to the same phoneme. Same phoneme that sounds different in different words, i.e. pin and spin, the phoneme 'p' is the same but sounds a bit different.
Word Stress
The relative emphasis given to certain syllables in a word. AKA accent.
Aspiration
strong explosion of breath. Voiceless sounds of p, t, or k.
IPA
International Phonetic Alphabet, a system of phonetic notation.
Phonetic Transcription
Visual system of symbols of the sounds occurring in spoken language. Most common is a phonetic alphabet.
Voiceless consonants
Describes the pronunciation of sounds when the larynx does not vibrate
Voiced Consonants
Describes a sound in which the vocal cords vibrate.
Nasal
Production of a sound while the velum is lowered, so that some air escapes through the nose during the production of the noise. most common are n, m, or ing.
Stops
Formed by completely blocking air. (p, b)
Fricatives
Formed by constricting air flow through the vocal tract (f, v, th, z, s, sh, sion)
Affricate
Sound is produced by stopping the air and then releasing it with friction (ch, j)
Liquid
Smooth sound. r
Glide
Constriction of the passage way (w, y)
Morphemes
Morphemes are the smallest linguistic unit that has meaning. i.e. s, cat, pickle. Have a fixed spelling, helps students with words they don't know.
Bound Morpheme
Used alongside other morphemes, i.e. s in cats
Free Morpheme
Can stand alone. i.e. cat
Affixes
Bound morphemes at the beginning or end of free morphemes (carry meaning). Some change the part of speech, others do not.
Semantics
Knowing a word, its definition, synonyms, and extended meanings of the word. As well as knowing other words related to the word. Semantic cues help students understand the meaning of words in a particular sentence/context.
Homophones
Words that are pronounced the same but have different meanings and different spellings. i.e. read/red, great/grate, seen/scene.
Idioms
A phrase that means something different than the words imply if interpreted literally. Idioms are more cultural than set in a language. Idioms are one of the most difficult things to learn in the process of learning a new language.
Syntax
Refers to the relationship between the grammatical components of language in use. The grammatical arrangement of words in a sentence, primarily concerned with structure or word order.
Sociopsycholinguistics
The belief that things like phonics and decoding can be learned while reading, that one can learn the parts by being immersed in the whole.
Interlanguage
The 'in-between' or crossing over of two languages. Via this process of trial and error learners slowly succeed in getting closer to using the target language as a native speaker would.
Interlanguage Interference
Happens when the rules from L1 are applied to the L2 - both syntactic and semantic errors.
Proxemics
Different cultures maintain different standards of proximity/personal space.
Circumlocution
When a speaker works around an unknown word (think catchphrase - describing scissors as 'the things that are used to cut paper')
Negative Transfer
This occurs when new language learners apply the rules from their native language to the language being learned.
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