Biology Review. SHS 9th Grade Honors Flashcards

Terms Definitions
The original source of energy in a ecosystem
the sun
Food Webs
show the possible energy flows through organisms (producers, consumers, decomposers) in an ecosystem.
System
organized connection of parts that are highly integrated to accomplish an overall goal
Biotic factors
living things
Abiotic factors
non-living things
10% rule
during energy transfers between organisms 90% is lost as heat
Tropic Levels
Primary, secondary, tertiary, quaternary
Matter Reservoirs
biosphere, bodies of water, solid earth, atmosphere, biological organisms
Forms of nitrogen
N2 (in-organic) nitrogen gas, NO2 Nitrite, NO3 (Organic) Nitrate, Nh3 ammonia
Nitrogen Fixation
fixing oxygen onto nitrogen atoms, (lightning strikes, bacteria)
Carbon Cycle processes
Photosynthesis, respiration, combustion, entry, decomposition
ecosystem
all the biotic and abiotic factors in a system
disturbance
an event of intense environmental stress
Dynamic Equilibrium
an ecosystem is at its climax and cannot continue to grow
Biodiversity
the # of and variety of organisms within an ecosystem
Biodiversity Index
0---1 (1=very diverse) (0=Not diverse
Natural selection
limits on population growth, leading to competition for resources, which causes the survival and reproduction of the fittest animals, thus leading to a change in the population
Mutations
can be positive and negative, also are random
Adaptation
changes in behavioral routines
Exponential Growth
occurs in uninhibited environments (density independent growth)
Logistic Growth
at some point restrictions from the environment will slow/ stop growth (density dependent)
Carrying capacity
a population which an environment can sustain infinitely
Bioaccumulation
occurs when an organism absorbs a toxic substance at a rate greater than that at which the substance is being removed from the organism
fission
splitting the nucleus of an atom
biomass
actual mass----> total mass of a certain species
Transpiration
transfer of nitrogen from atmosphere to producers
CFC's
are bad for the ozone layer
Natural Selection
survival of the fittest
Selective pressure
a pressure on a organism that selects a trait
equilibrium
a balance in an ecosystem
Characteristics of life
Cells, Reproduce, energy use, death, homeostasis, growth/Development, organization (Resist entropy)
Chemical Activities of a cell
Transport materials, energy capture and release, protein building, waste disposal, passing information, movement
Prokaryotic Cells
lack membrane bound organelles and nucleus.
Eukaryotic Cells
have nucleus
Exocytosis
Moving things out of a cell
Endocytosis
moving things into a cell
C6 H12 O6
Glucose
Elements
specific types of atoms
Atom
smallest form of an element
Electron
subatomic particle with negative charge
Neutron
subatomic particle with no charge
Proton
subatomic particle with a positive charge
Electron Orbitals
1st: can hold 2 e-, 2nd: can hold 8 e-, 3rd: can hold 8 e-
Polar Covalent Bond
have partial charges, unequal sharing of electrons H20 is and example
non-polar covalent
have no charge, equal sharing of e-
How do you determine bond type?
if difference is about 0 it is a non polar covalent, if difference is .2<x<1.7 it is polar covalent, if difference >1.7 ionic bond
Ionic Bond
transfer of electrons
HONC
hydrogen, oxygen, nitrogen, carbon
Protein Structure
Primary, secondary, tertiary, quaternary
Saturated
filled with hydrogen (more dense)
Lipids
non-polar molecules with fatty acid tails
Phospholipid Bilayer
a cells membrane, is comprised of a polar (hydrophilic) head and non polar (hydrophobic) tail
Integral Proteins
goes all the way through the phospholipid bilayer
embedded proteins
don't go all the way through the phospholipid bilayer
Why would a cell membrane be more fluid like?
more saturated fats (also remain fluid at lower temps)
Active transport
movement in a cell that requires ATP (Ion pumps, exocytosis)
Passive Transport
transport in a cell that does NOT require ATP (osmosis, diffusion)
Chloroplast
where photo synthesis occurs
Thylakoid
a disk in chloroplasts that hold chlorophyl
Processes of Photosynthesis
Light reactions (photo part) and Dark Reactions (calvin cycle)
4 stages of cell division
G1, S, G2, M
Is photosynthesis catabolic or anabolic
anabolic meaning building things up
Phosphorylation
the production of ATP using sunlight
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