APUSH Chapter 6: The Constitution and the New Republic (1787-1800) Flashcards

Terms Definitions
Mt. Vernon Conference
George Washington hosted this at his home in VA (1785); VA, MD, PA, and DE reps agreed that problems were serious enough with the Articles to prompt further discussions at a later meeting in Annapolis, MD, where the states might be represented
Annapolis Convention
only 5 states sent delegates to this in 1786 and James Madison with Alexander Hamilton convinced the other delegates that a convention should be in Philly to revise the Articles
Constitutional Convention
called the 13 states to send delegates to Philly to revise the Articles of Confederation; only Rhode Island didn't go
Framers of Constitution
George Washington was the chairperson; Ben Franklin was the elder statesman who unified the people; the direct Framers were James Madison (director, "father of the Constitution"), Alexander Hamilton, Gouverneur Morris, and John Dickinson
Checks and balances
when a branch of government has sufficient power to check the others)
VA Plan
favored large states in proportional representation
NJ Plan
favored the small states in proportional representation
CT Plan; Great Compromise
2 House Congress, equal representation in the Senate, but the larger body (the House), would be represented according to proportional representation
3/5ths Compromise; slave trade
each slave counted as 3/5s of a person for the purposes of determining a state's level of taxation and representation
Commercial Compromise
allowed Congress to regulate interstate and foreign commerce, including placing tariffs (taxes) on foreign imports, but it prohibited placing taxes on any exports
Electoral College System
delegates assign to each state a number of electors equal to the total of that state's representatives and senators; instituted because the delegates at Philadelphia feared that too much democracy might lead to mob rule
Federalists
those who supported Constitution and a strong federal government (Atlantic Coast, large cities)
Anti-Federalists
Opponents of the Constitution and Federal government (small farmers and settlers along the Western frontier)
The Federalist Papers
highly persuasive essays by Madison, Hamilton and Jay, which presented cogent reasons for believing in the practicality of each major provision of the Constitution: "supreme law of the land"
Bill of Rights; amendments
drafted by Madison in 1791; guarantees that Anti-Federalists wanted against possible abuses of power by the central (or federal) government
Legislative Branch
Congress
Executive departments; cabinet
authorized by Constitution that president can appoint chiefs of departments as long as they are approved by Senate; 4 Heads of Departments; Jefferson as Secretary of State, Hamilton as secretary of treasury, Knox as secretary of war, and Randolph as attorney general
Judiciary Act (1789)
Established a Supreme Court with one chief justice and 5 associate justices; empowered to rule on constitutionality of decisions made by state courts; act also provided for a system of 13 district courts and three circuit courts of appeals
National debt
Hamilton proposed to pay off the national debt at face value and have the federal government assume the war debts of the states
Infant industries
Hamilton proposed to protect the young nation's new and developing industries by imposing high tariffs on imported goods
National bank
Hamilton proposed to create a national bank for depositing govt funds and for printing banknotes that would provide the basis for a state US currency
Tariffs; excise taxes
to raise enough revenue to pay govt debts, Hamilton got Congress to pass these on certain goods (i.e. Whiskey)
French Revolution
When it broke out, France and US had an alliance with French monarchy but not the revolutionary republic; agreed with France and France's side especially against Britain
Proclamation of Neutrality (1793)
Washington believed the young nation was not strong enough to go to war and as a result, he proclaimed neutrality in the French conflict
"Citizen" Edmund Genet
Objecting to Washington's policy, Genet, the French ambassador to the US, broke all the normal rules of diplomacy by appealing directly to the American people in support of the French cause
Jay Treaty (1794)
US was tired of British searches and seizures of American ships and impressments of seamen into the British navy; after a year of talks, he made a treaty with British where they agreed to evacuate Western frontier posts, but said nothing of British seizures of American merchant ships
Pinckney Treaty (1795)
Thomas Pinckney, US Ambassador to Spain, negotiated a treaty with Spain to open the lower Mississippi River and New Orleans to America
Right of deposit
ability for Americans to transit cargoes to New Orleans without paying duties to Spanish govt
Battle of Fallen Timbers
General Wayne defeats Shawnee, Wyandot and other Native Americans in this battle in NW Ohio; the next year, the Chiefs of the defeated peoples agreed to the Greenville Treaty where they surrendered the Ohio Territory for settlement
Whisky Rebellion (1794)
PA, farmers refused to pay federal excise tax on whiskey and they attacked revenue collects; Washington federalized 15000 state militiamen and put them under Hamilton's command, scaring the farmers and ending the rebellion
Public Land Act (1796)
established orderly procedures for dividing and selling federal lands at reasonable prices
Federalist Era
1790s were dominated by two Federalist figures around which political parties formed: Hamilton and Jefferson; Hamilton's federalists supposed his financial programs (loose interpretation of Constitution but strong central government)
Democratic-Republican party
supported Jefferson (anti Hamilton programs); southern state support and western frontier, whose political platform protected states' rights and strict containment of federal power
Washington's farewell Address
called for Americans to not get involved in European affairs, no permanent alliances, no political parties, and no sectionalism
two-term tradition
Washington left after two terms of office and set a precedent that was followed by all until FDR
John Adams
Federalist candidate, and winner by 3 electoral votes; Jefferson was VP because he had 2nd most votes
XYZ Affair
when Americans were angered by prospect of US merchant ships being taken by the French, emissaries were sent to France by Adams and French Ministers X, Y, and Z requested bribes before negotiations could be had; delegates were livid and wanted war but Adams diffused the situation and sent new ministers
Alien Act
authorized president to deport aliens considered dangerous and to detain any enemy aliens in a time of war
Sedition Act
made it illegal for newspaper editors to criticize either the president or Congress and imposed heavy penalties on those who broke the law
KY and VA resolutions
KY (Jefferson) and VA (Madison), which declared that the states had entered into a "compact" in forming the national government and therefore, if any act of the federal government broke the compact, a state could nullify federal law
Revolution of 1800
in response to the Alien and Sedition Acts, and taxes, Jefferson won the election of 1800 and it was called a revolution because it was a successful transfer from one political party to another done without violence (Federalist to Democratic-Republican)
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