Earth Science 4th Grade Study Guide Flashcards

Terms Definitions
fossil fuels
a fuel formed in the earth from plant or animal remains. (coal,oil, natural gas)
natural gas
a gas, mostly methane, usually found in petroleum
petroleum
a thick brown or black fossil fuel; crude oil
rock cycle
the slow, never-ending process of rock changes
energy
the ability to cause change
solar energy
energy given off by the sun
wind energy
energy given off by the wind
water energy
energy given off by water
igneous rock
a rock that forms when completely melted magma hardens
metamorphic rock
a rock changed by heat or pressure, but not completely melted
sedimentary rock
a rock formed by layers of sediments squeezed and stuck together over a long time
mineral properties
the characteristics of minerals
texture
the way a mineral feels
color
the color of the mineral
luster
what the surface looks like (shiny, dull, etc.)
soil properties
the characteristics of soil
humus
the rotting plant and animal material in topsoil
crust
earth's outer layer, includes the rock of the ocean floor and large areas of land
mantle
the thickest layer of earth; found just below the crust
core
the dense center of earth; a ball made mostly of two metals, iron and nickel
plate
continent-sized slab of earth's crust and upper mantle
earthquake
a vibration, or shaking of earth's crust
fault
a break in earth's crust along which rocks move
seismograph
an instrument that records earthquake waves
volcano
a mountain that forms when red-hot melted rock flows through a crack onto earth's surface
magma
melted rock inside the earth
landslide
a slide of a large mass of dirt or rock down a mountain or a cliff
tsunami
a large wave produced by an earthquake or volcano
flood
too much water causes rivers and streams to overflow their banks over the surrounding land.
rapid change
a change to the earth's surface that happens suddenly, such as through a natural disaster. (earthquake, flood, landslide)
slow change
a change to the earth's surface that happens slowly, over time. (erosion, weathering, deposition)
erosion
the process by which wind and moving water carry away bits of rock
weathering
the process by which rocks are broken down into smaller pieces
lava
melted rock that reaches earth's surface
vent
the rocky tube in a volcano through which magma rises toward
crater
a large basin formed at the top of a volcano when it falls in on itself
fossil
a preserved clue to life on earth
trace fossil
fossil that provides evidence of the activities or behaviors of ancient organisms
cast fossil
a fossil formed when minerals from rock move into a harden within the space left by a decayed organism
mold fossil
a hollow space in a rock that has the shape of the remains of the organism that once occupied that space
extinct
species of organisms that are no longer found living
Most fossils are found in layers of _______
sedimentary rock
The name of an elephant like animal that has been found in frozen rock
mammoth
amber
a hardened tree sap that insects are often preserved in
Infer: Fossils of alligator-like animals are discovered in Canada
The climate of Canada was once warm
Infer: Fossils of sea animals were found in the Andes Mountains
The Andes Mountains were once under water
Infer: Fossils of four-toed horses that were about the size of a cat are discovered
Horses once had four toes and were the size of a cat
Classify the following Earth Materials: stone, petroleum, coal, water, clay, soil, oxygen, marble, natural gas, carbon dioxide
building materials: stone, clay, marble
fuel: natural gas, petroleum
growing plants: oxygen, carbon dioxide, water, soil
Compare (likeness) volcano eruptions and earthquake
Earthquakes often happen near volcanos.
They both occur at the boundaries of tectonic plates.
They both may trigger a landslide
They both may trigger a Tsunami
Dangers of volcanic eruptions
hot ash, lava, rock fragments, and gas that run down the sides of a volcano, knocking down and burning everything in its path.
Deadly gas can surge hundreds of miles from the volcano.
Dangers of earthquakes
May cause the collapse of buildings.
May cause a tsunami
Recently, an earthquake in Japan shifted the main island 8 feet.
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