Ap Biology Chapter 50: An Introduction to Ecology and the Biosphere Flashcards

Terms Definitions
ecology
scientific study iof interaction b\t organisns and their environment
abiotic components
nonliving chemical and physical factors
-ex: temperature, light, water, nutrients
ecological time
minutes, months, years
-immediate
evolutionary time
decades, centuries, milennia
organismal ecology
morphological, physiological, & behavioral ways in which individual organisms meet the challenges posed by their biotic and abiotic environments
population
a group of individuals of the same species living in a particular region
community
all the organisms of all the species that inhabit a particular area
community ecology
the whole array of interacting species in a community. Predation, competition, impact of disease on community
biome
the global biosphere
ecosystem
all abiotic factors in addition to the entire community of species that exist in a certain area
precautionary principle
the key to helping the environment is preventing environmental disasters
biogeography
study of past and present distribution of individual species
dispersal
distribution of individuals w/i geographic population boundaries
climate
the prevailing weather conditions at a locality
climograph
a plot of temperature and rainfall in a particular region
tropics
b/t 23.5 degrees N latitiude and 23.5 degrees S latitiude
, the part of the Earth's surface between the Tropic of Cancer and the Tropic of Capricorn-close to thte equator
Ex. characterized by a hot climate
turnover
mixing of waters as a result of changing water temperature porfiles in a lake. Brings oxygenated H2O from the surface of lakes to the bottom and nutrient-rich water from the bottom surface
microclimate
very fine scale variations of climate, such as the specific climatic conditions underneath a log.
detritus
dead organic matter
photic zone
the narrow top slice of the ocean, where light permeates sufficiently for photosynthesis to occur.
thermocline
anarrow stratum of rapid temperature change in the ocean and in many temperate-zone lakes
benthic zone
the bottom surface of an aquatic environment
aphotic zone
the part of the ocean beneath the photic zone, where light does not penetrate sufficiently for photosynthesis to occur.
benthos
organisms (plants and animals) that live at or near the benthic zone
littoral zone
In a lake, the shallow, well-lit waters close to shore.
limnetic zone
In a lake, the well-lit, open surface waters farther from shore.
profundal zone
the deep aphotic region of a lake
oligotrophic
a nutrient poor, oxygen rich, clear, deep lake with few phytoplankton
eutrophic
a nutrient rich, oxygen poor lake having a high rate of biological productivity
mesotrophic
Lakes with moderate amounts of nutrients and phytoplankton productivity intermediate to oligotrophic and eutrophic systems.
wetland
an area of land that is periodically underwater or whose soil contains a great deal of moisture-supports aquatic plants
hydrophytes
"water plants"
-ex: lilies, cattails, sedges, tamatack, black spruce
estuary
A habitat in which the fresh water of a river meets the salt water of the ocean.
intertidal zone
Portion of the shoreline that lies between high tide and low tide lines.
-where land meets water
neritic zone
The shallow region of the ocean overlying the continental shelf.
pelagic zone
open water of any depth.
oceanic zone
Where the sea floor drops sharply. Large ocean animals live here.
-The region of water lying over deep areas beyond the continental shelf.
coral reefs
Prominent oceanic features composed of hard, limy skeletons produced by coral animals like cnidarians
oceanic pelagic biome
Most of the ocean's photic waters far from shore, constantly mixed by ocean currents.
abyssal zone
The portion of the ocean floor where light does not penetrate and where temperatures are cold and pressures intense.
deep-sea hydrothermal vents
A dark, hot, oxygen-deficient environment associated with volcanic activity. The food producers are chemoautotrophic prokaryotes
permafrost
permanently frozen ground
ecotone
where terrestrial biomes integrate into e/o
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