Chapter 10: Generalization, Discrimination, and Stimulus Control Flashcards

Terms Definitions
generalization
tendency for a learned behavior to occur in situations different from the one in which the behavior was learned
- can be increased by training in a variety of settings
- also applies to punishment (e.g. reduction of pecking towards disks that are greenish)
discrimination
tendency for a learned behavior to occur in situations that closely resemble the one in which the behavior was learned but not in situations that differ from it
stimulus control
stimuli come to exert influence over behavior
discrimination training
any procedure that establishes discrimination
- establishes stimulus control
generalization gradients
- measure of generalization/discrimination
- SHOWS THE TENDENCY FOR A BEHAVIOR TO OCCUR IN SITUATIONS THAT DIFFER SYSTEMATICALLY FROM THE TRAINING SITUATION/STIMULUS
- respond to stimuli more like trained stimuli
probe trials
regarding generalization gradients; insert occasional unreinforced test stimulus
- won't extinguish trained stimulus response
extinction blocks
- train stimulus to asymptote
- present stimulus once/block
- extinction constant across stimuli
semantic generalization
- generalization of an abstract feature
- e.g. adults ate candy (US) to salivate (UR) while shown words
- CRs for homophones but also very strong CRs for synonyms
generalization post extinction
- operant training then extinction
- produces reduction in generalization to other stimuli
suppression of behavior via punishment also generalizes
- e.g. Honig & Slivka: greatest reduction of pecking to 'greener' colors
presence/absence training
- successive discrimination training
- simultaneous discrimination training
successive discrimination training
S+ & S- alternate randomly (S+ --> reinf., S- ---> extinction)
simultaneous discrimination training
S+ & S- presented at the same time
matching to sample (MTS)
select from 2+ alternatives (comparison stimuli) the stimulus that is the same as the sample
mismatching
like MTS, but pick comparison stimulus not like sample
delayed matching to sample (DMTS)
like MTS, but delay between presentation of sample and choice
errorless discrimination training
present S+ as normal but start S- at low salience (short time and 'faint') making it hard for subject to respond to S-.
- gradually increase salience of S- to equal S+
- greater discrimination learned
differential outcomes effect
- different reinforcers available for different responses
- allows learning of multiple three-term contingencies
- can produce faster, and stronger, discrimination training
Pavlov's theory of Generalization and Discrimination
- founded in physiology; discrimination training establishes areas of activation in the brain
- CS+ --> excitatory regions
- CS- --> inhibitory regions
- PROBLEMS: no independent validation of brain area generated through conditioning, physical proximity of brain areas not needed for response generation
activation
part of Pavlov's theory of Generalization and Discrimination; stimuli similar to CS+/CS- will excite parts of the brain close to the CS+/CS- area (depending on what it is)
Spence's theory of Generalization and Discrimination
- excitatory (CS+ or S+) and inhibitory (CS- or S-) gradients
- net sum effect of gradients results in behavior
peak shift
shift in peak level of responding away from S+ in direction opposite S-
Lashley-Wade theory of Generalization and Discrimination
- generalization gradients depend on prior experience with stimuli similar to those used in testing
- DISCRIMINATION TRAINING INCREASES THE STEEPNESS OF THE GENERALIZATION GRADIENTS BECAUSE IT TEACHES THE ANIMAL TO TELL THE DIFFERENCE BETWEEN THE S+ AND OTHER STIMULI
- everyday experiences produce discrimination training
- PROBLEMS: results of testing are ambiguous, there is a possibility that special rearing environments produce neurological damage
Jenkins & Harrison
- supports lashley-wade theory
- spoiled pigeons (received reinforcement regardless of tone response or not)
- responded same amount during tone or silence (flat generalization gradient)
concept
any class of things sharing one or more defining features
- can be learned through discrimination training
Herrnstein's studies
- trained pigeons the concept of tree
the more discrimination the less generalization
discrimination and generalization are inversely related
CS+
in pavlovian discrimination training, this stimulus is paired with a US
CS-
in pavlovian discrimination training, this stimulus regularly appears alone
S+
in operant discrimination training, this stimulus typically indicates that a behavior will have reinfrocing consequences
S-
n operant discrimination training, this stimulus typically indicates that the behavior will NOT have reinforcing consequences
discriminative stimuli
stimuli that are associated with different consequences of behavior (i.e. S+, S-)
mental rotation
proposed by shepard, seems to be proof of concept formation
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