Rocks: Materials of the Solid Earth Flashcards

Terms Definitions
Rock cycle
Helps us understand the origin of the three basic rock groups.
Igneous rock
A type of rock that forms from the cooling of molten rock at or below the surface.
Sedimentary rock
Rock formed from consolidated clay sediments.
Metamorphic rock
Rock altered by pressure and heat.
Magma
Molten rock beneath the earth's surface.
Lava
Magma that reaches Earth's surface.
Lithification
Transforming sediments into sedimentary rocks.
Weathering
The breaking down of rocks and other materials on the Earth's surface.
Sediment
Particles that form as a result of weathered rock.
Crystallization
The cooling of molten rock above or beneath the surface.
Extrusive igneous rock
Rock that forms from the cooling and solidification of lava at Earth's surface.
Intrusive igneous rock
Rock formed from the cooling and solidification of magma beneath Earth's surface.
Course-grained texture
When large masses of magma solidify far beneath the surface, they form igneous rocks that exhibit this texture, where the crystals are roughly equal in size and large enough to be identified with the unaided eye.
Fine-grained texture
A texture exhibited by most external igneous rocks, when it cools fast enough for there to be small crystals too small to differentiate with the naked eye.
Porphyritic texture
An igneous rock texture in which large crystals are scattered on a background of much smaller crystals.
Glassy texture
A texture formed when a rock cools so fast it doesn't have time to crystallize.
Detrital sedimentary rock
A rock that forms from sedimentary deposits that originated as solid particles.
Chemical sedimentary rock
Sedimentary rock that forms when minerals precipitate from a solution or settle from a suspension.
Evaporite
The sediment that is left after the evaporation of seawater.
Strata
Layers of sedimentary rock.
Fossil
The preserved remains or traces of an organism that lived in the past.
Contact metamorphism
A change in the texture, structure, or chemical composition of a rock due to contact with magma.
Regional metamorphism
A change in the texture, structure, or chemical composition of a rock due to changes in temperature and pressure over a large area, generally during mountain building.
Foliated texture
The texture used to describe metamorphic rocks with a layered appearance.
Non-foliated texture
Metamorphic rock that is composed of only one mineral.
Hydrothermal solution
The hot, watery solution that escapes from a mass of magma during the later stages of crystallization; such solutions may alter the surrounding rock.
Vein deposit
A metal-rich accumulation of mineral matter that occurs along a fracture or bedding plane.
Disseminated deposit
Ores distributed as minute masses throughout the entire rock mass.
Rock
A consolidation of minerals.
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