Rise of American Business, Immigration, Industrialization, Urbanization, Westward and Native American Policies. Flashcards

Terms Definitions
Early Labor Union Strikes showed...
That they lacked popular and political support.
Corporations became the main form of business in the 19th century because...
Industries needed a large amount of capital.
Sherman Antitrust Act was
setup to promote free competition in the marketplace.
Labor Unions formed because of...
poor working conditions in factories, Long 12 hour workdays, and an unequal distribution of profits between managment and workers.
There was not much foreign investments prior to 1890 because...
Investment opportunities were better in the United States.
During the 1800's a common reaction to the activities of labor unions in the United States was ...
courts frequently issued injunctions to stop strikes.
American Industrialists used the theory of Social Darwinism to...
Justify monopolistic actions. (survival of the fittest)
Industrialization led to what other three developments...
growth of urban centers, increase in the middle class, and an increase in agricultural production.
Forming monopolies and trusts was one way to...
eliminate competition after the civil war.
The United States helped to develop the West by ...
Giving railroads land grants (free land)
Laissez-faire
a, policy based on the idea that government should play as small a role as possible in the economy (no restrictions)
This led to an increase in the power of business
Industrialization
Federal Economic Protectionism
tariffs
Social Darwinism
embraced by big business, belief economic success = fitness to lead
Clayton Antitrust Act
restore business competition
Business Practices of RailRoads 1800s
abuses led to increased demand for Government regulation
Why did Businesses become Corporations
$ Money (Capital), Safer (less liabilities), Sell Stocks
Why did government dislike Trusts/Monopolies
Reduced Competition
Sherman Anti-trust Act
Stop or prevent monopolies/trusts
Laissez-faire
hands off, no regulation of business
Who favored Laissez-faire
Big Businesses
What was result of Strikes in 1880s
Big Businesses won, Labor Unions lost. Government supported businesses
How did the courts stop Strikes
Injunctions (stops an action)
Labor Unions wanted
better wages, shorter hours, safer conditions, collective bargaining
Nativism
people who hate immigrants
Cultural Pluralism
different cultures living together. ex NYC chinatown, little Italy
Melting Pot Theory
Blending of cultures resulting in a new American Identity
Immigration reasons Late 1800s
Jobs, Political Upheaval
Protective Tariffs
way the US government protected American goods from foreign competition
Urbanization
the social process whereby cities grow and societies become more urban
Industrialization
the process of developing machine production of goods
Robber Barons
This nickname for wealthy entrepreneurs and businessmen like Andrew Carnegie and John D. Rockefeller.
Immigrants settled in Cities because
Jobs were readily available
Problems Immigrants faced
frequently discriminated against
Why was European Immigrantion 1800s unrestricted
the American economy needed many unskilled workers
Industrial Growth resulted
demand for cheap immigrant labor
Populists
formed by farmers, wanted a reduced tariff, a graduated income tax, government control of the railroads, currency reform or extension of the money supply
Farmer had difficulty making a living
due to railroad companies charging high rates to transport farm products
"Cheap Money"
low interest loans because rising prices for farm crops would make it easier for Farmers to pay back loans.
Impact of Populist and Progressives
Some third party goals eventually become planks in major platforms
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