Chapter 8 Flashcards

Terms Definitions
Interaction between two species in which both are harmed
Competition
The functional role of species within an ecosystem
Niche
One of the three main properties of a population
Density
Development of adaptations as a result of symbiotic relationships
Coevolution
Maximum population that a ecosystem can support indefinitely
Carrying capacity
Close interaction between two species in which one organism benefits while the other organism is harmed
Parasitism
The ratio of births to deaths in a population
Growth rate
Maximum number of offspring that each member of a population can produce
Reproductive potential
A reduction in population size caused by a natural disaster
Density independent regulation
The location where an organism lives
Habitat
Area defended by one or more individuals against others.
Territory
Provide two examples of an organism and its territory
Wolfes in the forest, humans defending their homes.
Relationship in which two species live in close association
Symbiosis
Identify the three types of symbiosis and give examples of each
Parasitism: tick or flea on dog
Mutualism: bacteria in human's intestine.
Commensalism: orchids and trees.
What is the difference between predatory-prey and parasite-host relationships?
A predator wants to kill its prey and a parasite doesn't.
What property of a population may be described as even, clumped, or random?
Dispersion.
What can occur if a population has plenty of food and space, and has no competition or predators?
The population increases.
What is the reproductive potential?
Maximum number of offsprings that each member of a population can produce.
What has the greatest effect on reproductive potential?
Reproducing earlier in life
Members of species will compete with other species for a number of reasons, but they will also compete within their population. What are some of the reasons why organisms compete?
Food, shelter, territory, and mate.
What does it mean to say that organisms compete "indirectly" for resources?
They are competing without having direct contact.
Although there are many predators on the African savanna, none plays exactly the same role as the lion. Can any two species occupy exactly the same niche? Why or why not?
No, because every specie has a specific niche
A biologist thinks that over time a parasite can influence the evolution of its host species. Do you think that she is right? Justify your answer.
Yes, because species en close relationships can coevolve.
To be considered part of the same population organisms must have reasonable chance of mating with each other. Are two wild roses separated by a wide road part of the same population? Defend your answer.
No, because they can still pollinate.
Imagine that two species of monkeys are introduced to an island that provides them with an ideal habitat. One species is arboreal and eats fruits and leaves; the other is terrestrial and relies on fallen fruits and a few small insects it can pick from the
The arboreal monkey eat the fruits before they can fall
Imagine that two species of monkeys are introduced to an island that provides them with an ideal habitat. One species is arboreal and eats fruits and leaves; the other is terrestrial and relies on fallen fruits and a few small insects it can pick from the
Competition
Imagine that two species of monkeys are introduced to an island that provides them with an ideal habitat. One species is arboreal and eats fruits and leaves; the other is terrestrial and relies on fallen fruits and a few small insects it can pick from the
Yes, if they run out of fruit they won't be able to stay alive
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