AP Government- The More Tricky Words. Flashcards

Terms Definitions
Activist Court
A court that makes deicsions that forge new ground.
Advise and Consent
Power of the Senate regarding presidential appointments.
Appropriation Bill
Congressional legislation that has spending as a basic characteristic. 13 appropriation bills make up the federal budget.
Block Grants
A gorm of fiscal federalism where federal aid is given to the states with few strings attached.
Burger Court
Warren Burger=15th chief justice. Appointed by Nixon in 1969. Conservative court.
Categorical Grants
Federal grants to states or local governments that are for specific programs or projects
Civil Liberties
Those rights of the poeple that are protected by the Bill of Rights.
Concurrent Power
Power shared by the state and federal government, such as the power to tax.
Concurring Opinion
Additional opinion in a Court decision written by a member of the majority.
Conference Committee
A committee consisting of senators and representatives that meets to resolve differences in legislation.
Congressional Budget office
Set up by Congress, this office evaluates the cost of legislative proposals.
Connecticut Compromise
Offered at the Constitutioanl Convention, this established a bicameral legislation, the House of Representatives and the Senate.
Cooperative Federalism
Developed during the New Deal. Federal government and state governments intertwine. "Layered Cake Federalism"
Democratic-Republican
Political party that opposed strong central government and believed the Alien & Sedition Acts violated the Bill of Rights
Direct Democracy
A form of government in which citizens rule directly and not through representatives
Direct Primary
Voters, including cross-over voters from other political parties, can express a preference for candidates.
Direct Tax
Money paid directly to the government in the form of income taxes.
Dissenting Opinion
Judicial written opinion that is contrary to the ruling of the full court.
Division of Labor
Skills workers each ahve a specialized function, resulting in increased productivity.
Dual Primary
Where presidential candidates are selected and a separate slate of delegates is also voted on.
Ex Post Facto Laws
Laws that take effect after the act takes place. Congress is prohibited from enacting this type of legislation.
Federalists
Supporters of the ratification of the Constitution.
Fiscal Federalism
A concept of federalism where funding is appropriated by the federal government to the states with specific conditions attached. Mandates are included.
Front Loading
Scheduling presidential primaries as soon as possible in order to affect the rest of the primary. New Hampshire and Iowa ALWAYS go first.
Mandatory Spending
Funds that MUST be allocated. Social Security, medicare, Medicaid, national debt payments, certain parts of defense spending are included.
New Jersey Plan
Created the Senate (each state has equal representation)
Office of Management and Budget
Prepares the federal budget. Must be submitted by January. OMB oversees congressional appropriations.
Precedent
"Stare Decisis", or let the decision stand.
Simpson-Marzzoli Act
Allowed over 2 million illegal alien who lived in the country since 1982 to apply for legal status
Virginia Plan
Offered at the Constitutional Convention, this formed the House of Representatives (representatiom based on population)
Whips
Party leaders who work with the majority leader or minority leader to count votes beforehand and lean on waverers whose votes are crucial to a bill favored by the party.
Writ of Certiorari
"To be made more certain". Supreme Court accepts written briefs on appeal based on the rule of four (Four justices out of 9)
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