Geology chp 8 Flashcards

Terms Definitions
Geologists who specifically study earthquakes are called: a. seismologists b. paleontologists c. vulcanologists d. speleologists
A. Seismologists
A surface along which rock on opposed sides is offset by earthquake-induced slip is called a. joint b. fault c. fold d. wall
B. Fault
.At any point along the surface of an oblique (nonvertical) fault, the :-. a. hanging wall lies vertically above the footwall b. footwall lies vertically above the hanging wall c. hanging wall lies to the left of the footwall d. footwall lies to the left
A. hanging wal lies vertically above the footwall
.If, during an earthquake, a hanging wall slides upward relative to a footwall, the fault is termed when the fault is steep (closer to vertical than horizontal). a. normal b. reverse c. strike-slip d. thrust
B. Reverse
If during an earthquake, a hanging wall slides upward relative to a footwall, the fault is termed , if the fault is shallow (much closer to horizontal than vertical). a. normal b. reverse c. strike-slip d. thrust
D. Thrust
If, during an earthquake, a footwall slides upward relative to a hanging wall, the fault is termed :- a. normal b. reverse c. strike-slip d. thrust
A. Normal
If a fault is nearly vertical in orientation and the two walls of rock on opposite sides slide past one another horizontally, the fault is termed :-. a. normal b. reverse c. strike-slip d. thrust
C. strike slip
The quantity of offset that occurs along a fault is termed :-. a. fault gouge b. the fault gauge c. displacement d. accumulation
C. displacement
The intersection between a fault plane and the ground surface is called the :-. a. dip line b. plunge c. fault trace d. seismic interface
C. fault trace
An earthquake occurs with an epicenter in the town of New Madrid, Missouri, in the interior of the North American Plate. Where might the hypocenter of this earthquake plausibly be found? a. in New Madrid (hypocenter and epicenter mean precisely the same t
B. 10 km south of new madrid
The greatest earthquake ever recorded by seismographs occurred in 1960 in Chile and measured on the moment-magnitude scale. a. 9.0 b. 9.5 c. 10.0 d. 10.5
B. 9.5
A primary force opposing motion on all faults is. a. magnetic attraction among iron-rich minerals b. gravity c. friction d. Van der Waals force
C. friction
Periods of intermittent sliding on a fault that result from the release of stress during episodes of displacement followed by stress buildup to the point that the fault is reactivated, are termed . a. chaotic faulting b. thrust faulting c. stick-slip beha
C. stick slip behavior
Aftershocks following a major earthquake. a. may continue for days after the initial earthquake b. are mostly much smaller than the original earthquake c. may occur on the same fault as the original earthquake, or on a different fault d. all of the above
D. all of the above
Faulting and earthquakes are examples of. a. brittle behavior b. ductile behavior
A. brittle behavior
Earthquake waves that pass through the interior of Earth are termed :. a. interior waves b. R-waves c. surface waves d. body waves
D. body waves
Which type of earthquake waves generally travels fastest? a. interior waves b. R-waves c. surface waves d. body waves
D. body waves
Surface waves:. a. travel more rapidly than body waves b. cause most of the damage to buildings during earthquakes c. are the first waves initially produced in an earthquake d. are the first waves to arrive at a seismograph station after an earthquake
B. cause most of the damage to buildings during earthquakes
.Body waves include :. a. both S- and P-waves b. both L- and R-waves c. both surface and interior waves d. P-waves only
A. both S- and P- waves
Which type of earthquake wave travels fastest? a. L-wave b. P-wave c. R-wave d. S-wave
B. p- wave
Vertical motion seismographs record earthquakes through the production of a squiggly diagram called a:. a. wave sheet b. seismogram c. pictogram d. camera lucida
B.seismogram
The point within Earth where an earthquake takes place is termed the . a. hypocenter (focus) b. epicenter c. eye of the fault d. vertex
A. hypocenter (focus)
The point on Earth�s surface directly above them point where an earthquake occurs is termed the :. a. hypocenter (focus) b. epicenter c. eye of the fault d. vertex
B. epicenter
How many seismic stations are necessary to find the epicenter of an earthquake? a. one b. two c. three d. four
C. three
Which earthquake intensity scale assesses the effects of an earthquake on humans and human-made structures? a. Richter scale b. Mercalli scale c. moment-magnitude scale
B. mercalli scale
Which earthquake severity scale only takes vibration caused by the S-waves into account when estimating the size of an earthquake? a. Richter scale b. Mercalli scale c. moment-magnitude scale
A. richter scale
Which earthquake severity scale takes into account the type of rock that has been fractured? a. Richter scale b. Mercalli scale c. moment-magnitude scale
C. moment magnitude scale
.Which earthquake severity scale measures the amplitude of deflection of a seismograph pen, standardized to an idealized distance of 100 km between epicenter and seismograph? a. Richter scale b. Mercalli scale c. moment-magnitude scale
A. richter scale
Which earthquake severity scale varies from locality to locality for a single earthquake? a. Richter scale b. Mercalli scale c. moment-magnitude scale
B. mercalli scale
Earthquakes are likely to occur along :. a. convergent plate boundaries only b. divergent plate boundaries only c. transform plate boundaries only d. all three major types of plate boundaries
D. all three major types of plate boundaries
Intermediate and deep earthquakes occur along :_. a. convergent plate boundaries only b. divergent plate boundaries only c. transform plate boundaries only d. all three major types of plate boundaries
A. convergent plate boundaries only
Earthquakes that occur in a band called a ____________ can be used to track the motion of subducted oceanic lithosphere. a. Wegener belt b. seismic gap c. Wadati-Benioff zone
C. Wadati-benioff zone
Virtually all of the deaths attributed to major earthquakes have resulted from the collapse of buildings. a. true b. false
A. true
Short-term predictions of earthquake behavior __. a. have saved millions of lives in the past decade alone b. have been largely unreliable c. are primarily based on the behavior patterns of farm animals d. are correct approximately 50% of the time
B. have been largely unreliable
Long-term prediction of earthquake behavior __. a. is based on past earthquake activity b. works on the principle that zones of past seismicity will be active in the future c. includes the notion of seismic gaps�places where an earthquake is �overdue
D. all of the above
A tsunami is ____________. a. an earthquake-generated sea wave that can sometimes destroy coastal cities thousands of kilometers from its source b. a sloshing of water back and forth within a lake or bay c. the amount of change in elevation of local sea l
A. an earthquake generated sea wave that can sometimes destroy coastal cities thousands of kilometers from its source
On December 26, 2004, a magnitude 9 earthquake generated a tsunami that devastated coastlines on the ____________ Ocean. a. Atlantic b. Arctic c. Indian d. Pacific
C. indian
The greatest earthquake ever recorded by seismograph equipment measured ____________ on the moment-magnitude scale and had an epicenter off the coast of _. a. 9.1; Indonesia b. 9.5; Chile c. 9.7; California d. 9.9; Alaska
B. 9.5; chile
California is the only state in the United States that experiences frequent or strong earthquakes. a. true b. false
B. false
A map of �g� for San Francisco is a stand in for a map of (a) magnitude strength (b) intensity
B. intensity
The San Andreas Fault is (a) strike slip (b) dip slip
A. strike slip
Faults in Nevada�s Basin and Range are most likely to be (a) normal (b) reverse (c) strike slip (d) thrust
A. normal
The Northridge earthquake was on a fault that was (a) normal (b) reverse (c) strike slip (d) thrust
D. thrust
The greatest energy per square meter of fault face come from quakes that are on faults that are (a) normal (b) reverse (c) strike slip
B. reverse
Fault creep is (a) slow lengthening of a fault trace (b) a very slow earthquake (c) gradual quasi-steady motion on a fault (d) igrtion of seismic activity from one fault to a neighboring fault.
C. gradual quasi- steady motion on a fault
A tsunami is most likely generated by (a) the snap of geology on the subduction zone hanging wall (b) the snap of geology on the subduction zone foot wall (c) recrystallization action on the Wadati-Benioff Zone (d) slippage action on the Wadati-Benioff Zo
A. the snap of geology on the subduction zone hanging wall
In the uDA calculation for seismic moment, D stands for distance from the epicenter (a) T (b) F
B. false
To tell how far an earthquake is from a particular seismic station, you need two more stations (a) T (b) F
B. false
Is it true to quakes on ocean ridges are usually small (a) Y (b) N
A. yes
Marina Green (SF) and Turnagain Heights (Alaska) both suffered from (a) being split by an active fault (b) being hit be tsunamis (c) liquefaction induced landsliding
C. liquefaction induced landsliding
The amount of energy in a Magnitude 5 quake is x times larger that a Magnitude 3 quake, where x is: (a) 10 (b) 30 (c) 100 (d) 300 (e) 900
E. 900
Aftershocks are, by definition, smaller than the main shock (a) T (b) F
A. TRUE
If we had a N-S oriented strike slip fault with a right-lateral motion quake, tensional cracks during a quake would be (a) N-S (b) E-W (c) NW-SE (d)NE-SW
D. NE-SW
If we had a N-S oriented strike slip fault with a right-lateral motion quake, small compressive folds during a quake would be (a) N-S (b) E-W (c) NW-SE (d)NE-SW
C. NW-SE
During liquefaction, intergrain fluid pressure (a) increases (b) decreases (c) remains unchanged it is rock pressure that changes
A. increases
What has the greatest lurching motion in quake (a) hard firm rock (b) thick weak soils?
B. thick weak soils
. Did the Wood Anderson seismograph pick up all the waves from a quake (a) Y (b ) N
B. no
Do you need to know the distance to a quake to measure Richter Magnitude (a) Y (b ) N
A. yes
Do you need to know the distance to a quake to measure Intensity (a) Y (b ) N
B. no
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