AP Biology Ecology Board Game Questions Flashcards

Terms Definitions
Name two locations where primary succession can happen.
On rocks, lava, or sand dunes.
In what condition does a habitat have to be in for secondary succession to occur?
The habitat is entirely or partially destroyed by some kind of wide scale event.
What is another name for camouflage?
Cryptic Coloration
What does the competitive exclusion principle state?
When two species compete for exactly the same resources, one is likely to be more successful.
What is the term for species coexisting in spite of competition for resources?
Resource partitioning
Name a reason that allowed for the exponential growth of human population.
Increase in food supply; reduction in disease; reduction in human wastes; expansion of habitat
What is the difference between a parasite and parasitoid?
Parasites live off another organism's tissue; parasitoid lays its eggs on host larvae-obtaining nourishment from host.
What is the difference between mutualism and commensalisms?
Mutualism - both species benefit
Commensalisms - one species benefits, while other species is neither helped nor harmed
List a biotic and an abiotic factor for each biome.
...
List some human impacts on the biosphere
...
What is the term for fluctuations in population size in response to vamping effects of limiting factors?
Population Cycles
Population
a group of individuals all of the same species living in the same area
Commmunity
all the population of species that live in the same habitat and interact with each other.
ecosystem
a system formed by the interaction of a community of organisms with their physical environment
biosphere
the regions of the surface and atmosphere of the Earth (or other planet) where living organisms exist
habitat
the type of environment in which an organism or group normally lives or occurs
niche
all the biotic and abiotic resources in the environment used by an organism
size
total number of individuals in the population
density
population is the total number of individuals per area of volume occupied
age structure
description of the abundance of individuals of each age
survivorship curves
graph that describes how mortality of individuals in a species varies during their lifetime
biotic potential
the maximum growth rate of a population under ideal conditions, with unlimited resources and without any growth restrictions
carrying capacity
the maximum number of individuals of a population that can be sustained by a particular habitat
limiting factors
elements that prevent a population that can be sustained by a particular habitat
density-dependent factors
agents whose limiting effects becomes more intense as the population density decreases
density-independent factors
factors that occur independently of the density of the population
exponential growth
the reproductive rate is greater than zero
logistic growth
limiting factors restrict the size of the population to the carrying capacity of the habitat
r-selected species
these species exhibit rapid growth strategy
What is the reproductive strategy of opportunistic species?
invade a habitat, quickly reproduce, and then die
K-selected species
one whose population size remains relatively constant
Character displacement (niche shift)
As a result of resource partitioning, certain characteristics may enable individuals to obtain resources in their partitions more successfully. Selection for these characteristics reduces competition with individuals in other partitions and leads to a divergence of features.
fundamental niche
the niche that an organism occupies in the absence of competing species
true predator
it kills and eats another animal
predation
any animal that totally or partly consumes a plant or another animal
symbiosis
two species that live together in close contact during a portion (of all) of their lives
mutualism
a relationship in which both species benefit
parasitism
the parasite benefits from the living arrangement, while the hose is harmed
commensalism
one species benefits, while the second species is neither helped or harmed
secondary compounds
toxic chemicals produced in plants that discourage would-be herbivores
camouflage
any color, pattern shape, or behavior that enables an animal to blend with its surroundings
aposematic coloration (warning coloration)
a conspicuous pattern or coloration of animals that warns predators that they sting, bite, taste bad, or are otherwise to be avoided
mimicry
two or more species resemble one another in appearance
Mullerian mimicry
several animals, all with some special defense mechanism, share the same coloration
Batesian mimicry
an animal without any special dense mechanism mimics the coloration of an animal that does possess a defense
ecological succession
the change in the composition of species over time
climax community
a final successional stage of constant species composition
pioneer species
the plants and animals that are first to colonize a newly exposed habitat
primary succession
this occurs on substrates that never previously supported living things
secondary succession
this begins in habitats where communities were entirely or partially destroyed by some kind of damaging event
trophic levels
plants and animals are organized into groups that reflect their main energy source
primary producers
autotrophs that convert sun energy into chemical energy
primary consumers
herbivores eat primary producers
secondary consumers
primary carnivores that eat the primary consumers
tertiary consumers
secondary carnivores that eat secondary consumers
detritivores (decomposers)
consumers that obtain their energy by consuming dead plants and animals
ecological pyramids
this is used to show the relationship between trophic levels
ecological efficiency
the proportion of energy represented at one trophic level that is transferred to the next level
food chain
a linear flow chart of who eats whom
food web
an expanded, more complete version of food chain
hydrologic cycle
water cycle
carbon cycle
carbon is required for building of all organic compounds
nitrogen cycle
nitrogen is required for the manufacture of all amino acids and nucleic acids
phosphorus cycle
phosphorus is required for the manufacture of ATP and all nucleic acids
biomes
regions that exhibit common environmental characteristics
tropical rain forest
A terrestrial biome characterized by high levels of precipitation and high temperatures year-round.
epiphytes
Plants that live on the surface of other plants without doing harm
savanna
an area of grassland with scattered trees and bushes
temperate grasslands
dominated by grasses, trees and large shrubs are absent. Temperatures vary more from summer to winter, and the amount of rainfall is less than in savannas. Temperate grasslands have hot summers and cold winters. Occur in South Africa, Hungary, Argentina, the steppes of the former Soviet Union, and the plains and prairies of central North America.
temperate deciduous forrest
Cold winters - hot summers, tremendous diversity
deserts
a type of biome characterized by low moisture levels and infrequent and unpredictable precipitation. Daily and seasonal temperatures fluctuate widely.
taigas
Biome that is characterized by coniferous (pines, firs, and other trees with needles for leaves).Winters are cold and snowy
tundras
biome, subject to very cold winters, during summer, the upper soil thaws, but the deeper soil, the permafrost, remains permanently frozen, grasses, and plants tolerant of soggy soils
permafrost
permanently frozen layer of soil beneath the surface of the ground
fresh water biomes
biomes- ponds, lakes, streams, and rivers
marine biomes
biome, include estuaries (where ocean meets river), intertidal zone (where oceans meet land), continental shelves (the relatively shallow oceans that border continents), coral reefs, and the pelagic ocean (the deep oceans)
global climate change
A broad term that refers to changes in the earth's climate mostly as a result of changes in temperature and precipitation.
ozone depletion
thinning of Earth's ozone layer caused by CFC's leaking into the air and reacting chemically with the ozone, breaking the ozone molocules apart
acid rain
rain containing acids that form in the atmosphere when industrial gas emissions (especially sulfur dioxide and nitrogen oxides) combine with water
desertification
the gradual transformation of habitable land into desert
deforestation
The destruction of large wooded areas, by fire, cutting, sometimes disease, etc. Typically carried out intentionally by humans to grow crops, provide space for cattle, build housing, provide lumber, etc.
pollution
undesirable state of the natural environment being contaminated with harmful substances as a consequence of human activities
reduction in species diversity
as a result of human activities, especially the destruction of tropical rain forests and other habitats, plants and animals are apparently becoming extinct at a faster rate than the planet has ever previously experienced. I they were to survive, many of the disappearing plants could become useful to humans as medicines, foods, or industrial products.
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