A.P. Comparative Government and Politics-99 Conceptual Terms Flashcards

Terms Definitions
accommodation
an informal agreement among a government and important interest groups in response to the interest groups' concerns about government policy or program benefits
accountability
the concept that government officials are responsible to and serve at the pleasure of constituents or elected officials (and that they may be removed from office by those electors or officials)
agro-export model of development
a strategy for economic development in which a country exports agricultural products, minerals or petroleum, and imports manufactures goods
asymmetrical federalism
subdivisions have local control while central state still retains authority over money, defense and foreign relations
authoritarianism
a political system in which a small group of individuals exercises power over the state without being constitutionally responsible to the public.
autocracy
a political system governed by a single individual
bureaucracy
system of managing government through departments run by appointed officials
cabinet government/collective responsibility
A system of government, as in Britain, in which the cabinet (rather than the PM) excecises responsibility for formulating policy and directing both the government and the executive branch.
capitalism
an economic system based on private property and free enterprise
catch-all party
aim is to gather support from a broad range of citizens through a de-emphasis on ideology and an emphasis on pragmatism and marketing.
checks and balances
A system that allows each branch of government to limit the powers of the other branches in order to prevent abuse of power
civil society
a network of voluntary associations that exists outside the state, such as professional organizations, trade unions, student and women's groups, religious bodies, fraternal organizations, athletic leagues, musical societies, etc.
clientelism
an informal aspect of policymaking in which a powerful patron(e.g. a government agency or dominant political party) offers resources such as land, contacts, protection or jobs in return for the support and services of lower-status and less powerful clients; corruption, preferential treatment and inequality are characteristic of clientelist politics
collectivist consensus
Post World War II era of mixed economy and a welfare state
collectivization
system in which private farms were eliminated, instead, the government owned all the land while the peasants worked on it.
command economy
An economic system in which the government controls a country's economy.
communism
A system of government in which the state plans and controls the economy and a single, often authoritarian party holds power, claiming to make progress toward a higher social order in which all goods are equally shared by the people.
consultative authoritarianism
where one individual determines the course of action
co-optation
strategy of that manages symbiotic interdepen. by neutralizing problematic forces in specfic environment
corporatism
a political system in which interest groups become an institutionalized part of the state or dominant political party;public policy is typically the result of negotiations among representatives of the state and key interest groups
coup d'etat
the constitutionally unauthorized removal of an existing government by force
danwei
control maintained through this system, all Chinese citizens have a lifetime affiliation with a specific industrial, agricultural, or bureaucratic nit that dictated all aspects of their lives, including housing, health care, and other social benefits.
democracy/democratization
the political orientation of those who favor government by the people or by their elected representatives
democratic centralism
a form of democracy in which the interests of the masses were discovered through discussion within the Communist party, and then decisions were made under central leadership to serve those interests
developmental state
A nation-state in which the government carries out policies that effectively promote national economic growth
devolution
the transfer of powers and responsibilities from the federal government to the states
dual society
a government in which the president or chief executive is from a differen political party than the political party that has a majority in, or which dominates the national legislatures
economic development
The improvement of living standards by economic growth.
export-centered development strategy
a strategy for development in which a country exports goods and services in which it has a comparative advantage;part of a neoliberal development model
fascism
any movement, ideology, or attitude that favors dictatorial government, centralized control of private enterprise, repression of all opposition, and extreme nationalism
federalism
a form of government in which power is divided between the federal, or national, government and the states
foreign direct investment
Direct investments in productive assets by a company incorporated in a foreign country, as opposed to investments in shares of local companies by foreign entities. An important feature of an increasingly globalized economic system.
formal sector
salaried or wage-based work registered in official statistics.
fragmented authoritarianism
authority divided among several groups/powers
fundamentalism
Literal interpretation and strict adherence to basic principles of a religion (or a religious branch, denomination, or sect).
free trade
unrestricted trade between countries
fusion of powers
a system of governance in which the authority of government is concentrated in one body
globalization
growth to a global or worldwide scale
gross domestic product
the sum total of the value of all the goods and services produced in a nation
gross domestic product per capita
the total value of a nation's goods and services divided by its population
import-substituting industrialization
a strategy for industrialization in which a country manufactures domestically goods that it previously imported in order to satisfy the demands of its domestic market
informal sector
the portion of an economy largely outside government control in which employees work without contracts or benefits
insider privatization
a method of privatization where workers are allowed to use vouchers to acquire shares in the enterprises where they worked.
interest groups
organizations that seek to represent the interests(usually the economic interests)of their members in dealing with the government
international financial institutions
financial institutions that have been established (or chartered) by more than one country, and hence are subjects of international law.
intergovernmental organizations
(IGOs) organizations composed of representatives appointed by the state gov's that have agreed to become members of the organization
interventionist
describing an activist government and/or state that is involved in a wide range of political, economic, and social arenas
judicial review
review by a court of law of actions of a government official or entity or of some other legally appointed person or body or the review by an appellate court of the decision of a trial court
keynesianism
economic theory, based on the ideas of British economist John Maynard Keynes, that argues that the government can stimulate the economy by increasing public spending or by cutting taxes
laissez-faire
a policy based on the idea that government.
law-based state/rule of law
a state of order in which events conform to the law
legitimacy
political authority conferred by law or by a state or national constitution
liberalism/liberalization
an economic theory advocating free competition and a self-regulating market and the gold standard
market economy
an economy that relies chiefly on market forces to allocate goods and resources and to determine prices
monetarism
an economic theory holding that variations in unemployment and the rate of inflation are usually caused by changes in the supply of money
nation
a community of people that shares territory and a government
nationalization
changing something from private to state ownership or control
neo-liberalism
A strategy for economic development that calls for free markets, balanced budgets, privatization, free trade, and minimal government intervention in the economy.
non-governmental organizations
international organizations that operate outside of the formal political arena but that that are nevertheless influential in spearheading international initiatives on social economic and environmental issues
nomenklatura
the system of patronage in Communist countries
marxism-leninism
An expanded form of Marxism that emphasizes Lenin's concept of imperialism as the final stage of capitalism and shifts the focus of struggle from developed to underdeveloped countries.
mixed-market economy
economic system that combines both private ownership and government ownership of the means of production
para-statal sector
state-owned, or state-controlled, corporations created to undertake a broad range of activities, from the control and marketing of agriultural production to the provision of banking services and the operation of airlines, other transportation facilities and public utilities
parliamentary democracy
government ruled democratically by a national representative body that has supreme legislative powers
party of power
patronage parties with strong official sponsorship
patrimonial state
Single ruler treats state as his own personal property,a nd appoints public offices to his own favor.
prebendalism
the form of patron-client politics that legitimizes the exploitation of government power for the benefit of office holders and their followers
presidencialismo
the traditional concentration of power, formal and informal, in the office of the mexican president
presidential system
a system of government in which the legislative and executive branches operate independently of each other
privatization
the process of putting ownership of productive resources into the hands of non governmental organizations and people
procedural democracy
Decision making process involving; universal participation, political equality, majority rule, and responsiveness
proportional representation
representation of all parties in proportion to their popular vote
purchasing power parity
a monetary measurement of development that takes into account what money buys in different countries
redistributive politics
Shift wealth from rich to poor
regime
the organization that is the governing authority of a political unit
rent/rent-seeking behavior
Expenditure of scarce resources (capital, human, natural) to produce or gain an asset that generates economic rent.
rentier state
A state that derives a substantial portion of its revenues on a regular basis from payments by foreign concerns in the form of rent.
repression
a state of forcible subjugation
separation of powers
the division of power among the legislative, executive, and judicial branches of government
shari'a
the code of law derived from the Koran and from the teachings and example of Mohammed
single member district
An electoral district in which voters choose one representative or official.
single-member plurality electoral system
based on the principle of having only one member (as of a legislature) selected from each electoral district
socialism
a theory or system of social organization that advocates the vesting of the ownership and control of the means of production and distribution, of capital, land, etc., in the community as a whole.
state
a political community that occupies a definite territory and has an organized government with the power to make and enforce laws without approval from any higher authority
state capitalism
an economic development strategy in which the state guides the process of private industrial and agricultural development, encourages the formation of investment capital and the establishment of businesses, and protects domestic businesses from foreign competition
state corporatism
a political system in which the state requires all members of a particular economic sector to join an officially designated interest group, with the result that the state gains substantial control over interest groups and interest groups channel or control their members' political and economic advocacy
state-owned enterprises
A business owned by the government
structural adjustment
refers to the set of adjustments or so-called reforms that are required by international banks as a condition for future loans and for refinancing on payments due on existing loans
substantive democracy
Domocracy is in the substance of gov. policies, and not in the policy making procedure
tacit social contract
Unwritten agreement that grants Soviet power in exchange for guaranteed employment, free social services, a lax work environment, and limited interferences in personal life.
technocrats
highly educated bureaucrats who make decisions based on their perceptions of technical ideas rather than political ones.
theocracy
the belief in government by divine guidance
totalitarianism
a form of government in which the ruler is an absolute dictator (not restricted by a constitution or laws or opposition etc.)
velayat-e faqih
The guardianship of the religious jurist. Concept elaborated by Ayatollah Khomeini to justify political rule by the clergy.
unfinished state
A state characterized by instabilities and uncertainties that may render it susceptible to collapse as a coherent entity
unitary state
An internal organization of a state that places most power in the hands of central government officials
vanguard party
a political party that claims to operate in the 'true' interests of the group or class it purports to represent, even if this understanding doesn't correspond to the expressed interests of the group itself.
welfare state
a government that undertakes responsibility for the welfare of its citizens through programs in public health and public housing and pensions and unemployment compensation etc.
westminster system
a democratic, parliamentary system of government modelled after that of the United Kingdom system; series of procedures for operating a legislature.
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