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Terms Definitions
erratic
inconsistent
Tentatively
hesitantly
progeny
descendants
Preempt
Supercede
sangfroid
calmed
antonym
opposites
latent
laying hidden
Inane
lacking significance
Stark
harsh, unrelieved
neutrality
disinterest, impartiality
culpable
guilty, blameworthy
Brazen
loud noises
olfactory
pertaining to smell
despotic
tyrannical, oppressive/domineering, overbearing, dictatorial
furtive (adj)
secret, stealthy
mackintosh
waterproof raincoatCharles Macintosh
seditious
Ant. faithful, allegiant
it is
ka ni
urchin
a mischievous boy.
Effulgence
glow, concentrated light (n)
visage
n. face; facial expression
feral
in a wild state
Divulge
to tell; to reveal
timorous
full of fear; fearful
carrion
dead and putrefying flesh.
nefarious
wicked, devoid of moral standards
elegy
a poem mourning the dead
Dactyl
A three-syllable metrical foot consisting of an accented syllable followed by two unaccented syllables.
rampart
bulwark; embankment as fortification; barricade
persiflage
n. light, good-natured talk; banter
burreaucracies
group of officials or administrators
furtive
taken, done, used, etc., surreptitiously or by stealth; secret:
balustrade
a railing with supporting balusters.
alliteration
the repetition of initial consonant sounds
Indigenous
Occurring in or characterizing an area; native. 2. Inborn (adj)
aspersion
a damaging or derogatory statement; the act of slandering or defaming
dissemble
to conceal under a false appearance
ostensible
offering as genuine or real; actual
Adjourn
To stop proceedings temporarily; move to another place
chagrin
noun Definition: displeasure Synonyms: annoyance, balk, blow, crushing, discomfiture, discomposure
duplicity
intentional deceit in speech or conduct
countenance
appearance, esp. the look or expression of the face:
destitute
without means of subsistence; lacking food, clothing, and shelter.
accede
to give consent, approval, or adherence; agree; assent; to accede to a request; to accede to the terms of a contract.
Polarize
To cause to concentrate about two conflicting or contrasting positions.
ironical
meaning the opposite of what is expressed
trepidation
a feeling of nervous expectation or anxiety
delineate
(v.) to portray, sketch, or describe in accurate and vivid detail; to represent pictorially
locale
the location where a story takes place
insurgent
one who rebels or rises against authority; rising in revolt.
rebut
to offer arguments or evidence that contradict an assertion, to refute
avid of
keenly desirous; eager; greedy (often fol. by for or of):
adversity
adverse fortune or fate; a condition marked by misfortune, calamity, or distress:
colic
paroxysmal pain in the abdomen or bowels.
enmity
a feeling or condition of hostility; hatred; ill will; animosity; antagonism.
falling action
events after the climax, leading to the resolution
fortitude
Strength of mind that allows one to endure pain or adversity with courage
conspiracy
a group of people plotting an evil act
arbitrate
 to submit or refer for decision to an arbiter
Brunch
A meal typically eaten late in the morning as a combination of a late breakfast and an early lunch
aloof
at a distance, esp. in feeling or interest; apart:
phrase
a sequence of two or more words arranged in a grammatical construction and acting as a unit in a sentence.
Odyssey Characters: Cyclopes
Race of one-eyed giants; an individual member of the race is a Cyclops.
logos
a picture or sign in rhetoric; or a statement rooted in fact
basal cell carcinoma
common in fair skinned people usually appears as a sm fleshy bump on the head neck or hands grow slowly and rarely spread to other parts of body most commo n in gen pop if left un tx can bleed cause damage
tether
a rope, chain, or the like, by which an animal is fastened to a fixed object so as to limit its range of movement.
third-person narrator
does not appear in the story but is usually capable of revealing thoughts and motives
Mary Elizabeth Coleridge, "The Witch"
I HAVE walked a great while over the snow,
And I am not tall nor strong.
My clothes are wet, and my teeth are set,
And the way was hard and long.
nematoda
roundworms
blastopore
mouth/anus
acoelomate
platyhelminthes
cuticle
nematoda
fins
chondrichthyes
tail
chordata
coelom, protostome
mollusca
spongocoel cavity
porifera
scavenger, parasite
platyhelminthes
diploblastic
porifera, cnidaria
coelomate, protostome
annelida
acoelomate cavity
platyhelminthes
amniote egg
reptilia
organ system
platyhelminthes
radial symmetry
cnidaria
nerve net
cnidaria
no nematocysts
ctenophora
bilateral symmetry
platyhelminthes
incomplete digestive
cnidaria
Bryophtes
3 phylums:HepatophytaBryophytaAnthocerophyta
pentaradial symmetry
echinodermata (adult)
medusa
floating tentacles down
polyp
cavity attached, tentacles
4 chambered heart
aves
2 tissue layers
cnidaria
a mesoderm (muscles/gut/circulatory)
ctenophora
Phylum Gnetophyta
EphedraWelwitchia mirabilisGnetum
Phylum Hepatophyta
Marchantia (liverworts)
triploblastic
platyhelminthes, nematoda, mollusca, annelida, arthropoda, echinodermata
deuterstome
blastopore develops into anus
incomplete digestion (phylums)
cnidaria, platyhelminthes
partial 4 chambered heart
reptilia
scales to prevent dessication
reptilia
Phylum Ginkgophyta
Ginkgo biloba (ginkgo)
reproduction
sexually & asexually (porifera, cnidaria, platyhelminthes, nematoda, annelida, mollusca, arthropoda, echinodermata)
arthropoda
spiders, scorpions, ants, beetles, termites, centipedes, grasshopper, termites, mites
mollusca
snails, slugs, clams, octopus, mussels, oysters, scallops
reproduction, hermaphrodite but no self fertilization
turbellana
muscular pharynx w gill slits
chordata
do insects have wings
some do
Phylum Cycadophyta
Zamia pumila (florida Coontie)
complete digestion (phylums)
nematoda, mollusca, annelida, arthropoda, echinodermata
name two sponges
basket crumd, breadcrumb sponge
arachnids have how many body segments?
2
echinodermata
sea stars, sea urchins, sea cucumbers, sand dollars, brittle stars
carnivores that use stinging cells to kill prey
cnidaria
what type of symmetry are sponges usually
radial
name three basic types of mollusks
univalve (gastropod)bi-valvecephalopd
what type of symmetry are they
usually radial
organ system level of organization
platyhelminthes, nematoda, mollusca, annelida, arthropoda, echinodermata
how many body segments and leg pairs do insects have
3
why dont sponges move
attached to floor of sea
does sponges move
no really only animal that dosent move
name a couple of insects
ants, flies, butterflies, beetles, grasshoppers
complete digestion
has both a mouth and an anus (tube within a tube)
where do arachnids live
in the woods, homes, yars, warm climates
where do cridarians live
mostly salt water, could be found in fresh
insects have a population of what
they are the most succesful animal
homunculus
body map
+1.00&-1.00
correlation range
mantra
a specific phrase
physics experiments
undergrads: physcial nature
experts: principles
Chi
maladjustment
self and subject probs
Requests made by authority
Obedience
blocking
-inaccessibility of stored info
Apperture problem
percieving misleading information about the direction in which the stimulus is moving, phsyological approach
Reconstruction
Recreating information by using memories by using memories, expectations, logic, and existing knowledge
People with ____________________________ spend at least 2 weeks feeling depressed, sad, anxious, fatigued, & agitated, experiencing a reduced ability to function & interact with others.
Major depressive disorder.
Psychoanalysis
insight & psychodynamic therapy developed by Sigmund Freud Access to unconscious material through free association Help the patient understand the unconscious causes for symptoms
giftedness
indicated by extraordinary creativity or performance in music, sports, or art, as well as traditional academic subjects
content
GST concept
language of linear causality
"anything a monkey could comment on"
who what when where
Genotype
An organism's entire genetic inheritance or genetic potential.
phlegm
from the head; pneumonia, cold
microglia
very mobile, can replicate, also engulf dead and dying neurons
conformity
adjusting one's behavior or thinking to coincide with a group standard
SENSE RECEPTERS
SPECIALIZED CELLS THAT CONVERT PHYSICAL ENERGY IN THE ENVIRONMENT OR THE BODY TO ELECTRICAL ENERGY THAT CAN BE TRANSMITTED AS NERVE IMPULSES TO THE BRAIN.
increasing behaviors by presenting positive stimuli, such as food.when presented after a response, it strengthens the response.
Positive Reinforcement
Example of overextension
"kitty" meaning a lion
neurotransmitters
chemical messengers that traverse the synaptic gaps between neurons. When released by the sending neuron, neurotransmitters travel across the synapse and blind to receptors site on the recieving neuron,thereby influencing whether it will generate a neural
nonfalsifiable
explanations that cannot be revised therefore unable to be disproved by any observable evidence
random assignment
selecting participants through chance, such as drawing names out of a hat, to ensure that all have an equal probability of being assigned to any of the groups
Popular children
give out reinforcements, listen carefully, maintain open lines of communication with peers, are happy, control their negative emotions, at like themselves, show enthusiasm and concern for others, self confident without being conceited
Conditioning
The process of learning associations between environmental stimuli and behavioral responses.
Aversion therapy
Involves presenting individuals with an attractive stimulus paired with unpleasant stimulation in order to condition a repulsive reaction
Mueller-Lyer illusion
an illusion demonstrating whether people automatically use pictures depth cues or whether they learn how to use them
internalizing problems
psychosocial problems that are manifested in inward symptoms, such as depression or anxiety
nativism
the idea that human characteristics are innate or inborn, not acquired or learned
whole language
emphasizes comprehension and context, and inferring what words are from context
aversive conditioning
classical conditioning to an unpleasant UCS
Shaping
An operant conditioning technique that consists of gradually molding a desired behavior (response) by reinforcing any movement in the direction of the desired response, thereby gradually guiding the responses toward the ultimate goal.
Murray Bowen
Important concepts: differentiation of self, triangulation, emotional reactivity, undifferentiated family ego mass attributed to:
Cones
-sensitive to color
-Clustered in the fovea
-Direct connection to cortex via bipolar cell
-Better at precise information
-Perceive color
-Ineffectual in dim light
what is passion by itself?
infatuation (crush)
psychoanalytic theory (iceburg theory)
conscious, preconscious, unconscious
disulfiram
used in the treatment of chronic alcoholism, producing highly unpleasant symptoms when alcohol is taken following its administration.
self- handicapping
behaviors that sabotage one's own performance as to provide an excuse for failure
Protonopia
see short wavelenghts as blue, neutral point at 492nm, above neutral see yellow, missing the long wavelength pigment
Zeitgebers
cues that entrain circadian rhythm to 24 hours, bright light is most important, Social interacting,
SIGNAL-DETECTION THEORY
A PSYCHOPHYSICAL THEORY THAT DIVIDES THE DETECTION OF A SENSORY PROCESS AND A DECISION PROCESS.
Conversion Disorder
changing emotional difficulties into a loss of a specific voluntary body function
Chunking
grouping individual bits of data into meaningful larger units
Cannon-Bard Theory
The theory that an emotion-provoking stimulus is transmitted simultaneously to the cerebral cortex, providing the conscious mental experience of the emotion, and to the sympathetic nervous system, causing the physiological arousal
group therapy
how he/she is perceived by others
Hypothalamus
Often called the "seat of the emotions," it is involved with emotional processing. When a thought is perceived as a threat, it secretes a substance called corticotrophin-releasing factor to the pituitary gland to activate the fight-or-flight response.
difference threshold
the smallest difference btw. two stimuli that can be detected 50% of the time
Spiritual Well-being
The state of mature higher consciousness deriving from insightful relationships with oneself and others, a strong value system, and a meaningful purpose in life.
Conditioned response(CR)
in classical conditioning, a learned response to a conditioned stimulus
Psychology
The scientific study of behaviour and mental processes.
action that can be observed or measured
behavior
Sex
(2) The behavior manifestation of the sexual urge; sexual intercourse
a Russian physiologist, discovered one of the simplest forms of learning called classical conditioning
Ivan Pavlov
Prejudice is to _______ as discrimination is to _______.
attitude, behavior
Family Influence
-Problems in family can effect attachment
Type A personality
behavior pattern characteristics by impatience, competitiveness, and hostility
taste buds
sensory receptors that transduce taste information
angina pectoralis
brief interruption of the heart's blood supply; caused by narrow arteries; shows up during exercise; could be a sign of a heart attack in the future
negative affectivity
a dimension of temperament that reflects the extent to which a person feels distressed (sad, angry)
developmental scientists
experts who study development - regardless of their disciplinary training
asthma
air tubes constrict and swell; may result from allergy, stress, or exercise
True or False: Flashbacks are a myth.
False.
law of effect
behavior followed by satisfying stimulus increases the bod between stimulus and response
Negative Reinforcement
The termination of an unpleasant condition after a response, which increases the probability that the response will be repeated.
Paul Watzlawick
Joined MRI group, major contribution in communication theory and constructivism
Definition of commitment?
a psychological construct representing the desire and resolve to continue sport participation
Linear perspective
-parallel lines that appear to converge convey distance. The more they converge, the greater the distance
Insecure-resistant/ambivalent
Referring to a pattern of attachment in which anxiety and uncertainty keep one person clinging to another, as an infant who resists active exploration, is very upset at separation, and both resists, and seeks contact on reunion.
watching something in its natural environment
naturalistic observation
cognitive psychology
the study of thoughts, languages, biases (what is being studied most today)
What is a theory?
Formulation of relationships underlying observed events.
Contingency
How well the CS predicts the occurance of the US. High level of predictability coupled with high contingency produces a stronger CR
Induced motion
movement of one object results in perception of movement in another object
ingroup bias
the tendency to favor one's own group
BINOCULAR CUES
VISUAL CUES TO DEPTH OR DISTANCE REQUIRING TWO EYES.
Basilar Membrane
the membrane running down the length of the cochlea
the tendency, once a response has been conditioned, for stimuli similar to the conditioned stimulus to elicit similar responses.
Generalization
Conditions of worth
Conditions on which the positive regard of others rests
noumena
things as they are in the environment, objectively "the real world"
3 types of intelligence tests
Binet Tests
Stanford Binet Tests
Wechsler Scales
Ability to comprehend shapes & images in 3 dimensions; ex. Skill at putting puzzles together or molding sculptures.
Spatial Intelligence.
A group united by cultural heritage, race, language or common history.
Ethnic Group
classical conditioning
A simple form of associative learning that enables organisms to anticipate events.
reticular formation
structure in the brainstem that plays a crucial role in arousal and attention and screens sensory messages entering the brain
kappa statistics was introduced by
J. Cohen in 1960
Axis 3
current medical conditions that may be relevant
inner ear
the innermost part of the ear containing the cochlea semicircular canals and vestibular sacs
When we attempt to explain the cause of someone's behavior, we are utilizing _______.
attribution
The reaction of our minds and bodies to unusual demands is known as
Stress
Mental\Emotional Health
The ability to accept yourself and others adapt to and cope with our emotions, and deal with the problems and challenges you meet in your life
mesoderm
the middle layer of an embryo's cells that will become muscles, bones, the circulatory system and some organs
conventional moral reasoning
In Kohlberg's theory, reasoning that focuses on receiving the approval of others and maintaining the social order
parts of the renal system
kidneys, ureter, bladder, urethra
What drugs are opium poppy extracts?
Codeine, Morphine, Oxycodone/Percoset/Perodan/Oxycontin, Heroin, Dilaudid, Hydrocodeine
Projective Test
A personality test in which people respond to inkblots, drawings of ambiguous human situations, or incomplete sentences by projecting their inner thoughts, feelings, fears, or conflicts onto the test materials.
Richard Fisch
part of MRI Research, opened Brief Therapy Institute at MRI in 1959
Environmental component to intelligence
-Adoption enhances the intelligence scores of mistreated and neglected children.
-Fraternal twins (genetically dissimilar but the same age and tend to be treated more similarly) tend to score more alike than other siblings.
Working model
In cognitive theory, a set of assumptions that are used to organize perceptions and experiences
Anoxia
A lack of oxygen that, if prolonged, can cause brain damage or death.
Secondary reinforcers
Learned reinforces that do not satisfy a physical need (money, grades, attention)
deindividuation
the loss of a persons sense of individuality and the reduction of normal constraints against deviant behaviour
14. A scientist wants to find out if there is empirical evidence for a relationship between caffeine and aggressive behaivor. She would
Accomodation
change in the shape of the lens when we focus on objects at different distances
cognitive dissonance theory
we act to reduce the discomfort (dissonance) we feel when two of our thoughts (cognitions) are inconsistent. For example, when our awareness of our attitudes and of our actions clash, we can reduce the resulting dissonance by changing our attitudes
the reappearance, after a pause, of an extinguished conditioned response.
Spontaneous recovery
California Personality Inventory (CPI)
A highly regarded personality test developed especially for normal individuals aged 13 and older
autonomic nervous system
the part of the peripheral nervous system that controls the glands and the muscles of the internal organs (such as heart). Its sympathetic division arouses; its parasympathetic vision calms.
Acute Stress
Stress that is intense in nature but short in duration.
Viktor Frankl (1905-1997)
A renowned psychiatrist who survived the horrors of Nazi concentration camps to write about his ordeal in the classic book, Man''s Search for Meaning. His contribution to the field of psychology is the concept of logotherapy-the meaning of life.
circadian rhythm theory
sleep has evolved to keep animals quiet and inactive during times of the day when there is greatest danger
intensity
the amount of energy in a light or sound wave which we perceive as brightness or loudness as determined by the wave’s amplitude.
Hardy Personality
A term coined by Maddi and Kobasa; personality characteristics that, in combination, seem to buffer against stress: control, commitment, and challenge.
ganglion cells
the first cells in the visual pathway to generate action potentials
association areas
the parts of the brain concerned wiht awareness, attention, memory, and the integration of information
Cognitive Therapy (CT)
A type of cognitive therapy, developed by psychiatrist Aaron T. Beck, that focuses on changing the client’s unrealistic beliefs.
For which drug is it most important to have medical supervision during detox?
Alcohol
Separation Anxiety
The fear and distress shown by a toddler when the parent leaves, occurring from 8 to 24 months and reaching a peach between 12 and 18 months.
What are three major antecedents/determinants of commitment?
attraction toward the activity, attractiveness of available alternatives (-), constraints or barriers to ceasing activity involvement.
Extrinsic motivation
-when a behavior is engaged because of an external reward/pressure
Positive Manifold
When a set of diverse ability tests are administered to large population samples, the correlations are positive
Signal Detection Theory (SDT)
a systematic approach to the problem of response bias. focuses on the process of making a judgment about the stimulus.
What is meditation?
refers to a family of practices that train attention to heightened awareness and bring mental processes under greater voluntary control.
What is the term for the strategy used to gain first a favorable response to a small request, with the intent of making a person more likely to agree later to a larger request?
foot-in-the-door technique
gender identity
a person's sense of self as male or female
What is the toxicity level of caffeine?
5,000mg (hard to achieve!)
American's with Disabilities Act
States that an employer can't conduct a medical examination, or even make inquiries as to whether an application has a disability, during the selection process
Tertiary Circular Reactions
The third of three types of feedback loops, this one involving active exploration and experimentation. The infant explores a range of new activities, varying responses as a way of learning about the world.
part of the ANS that restores the body to normal functioning after arousal and is responsible for the day to day functioning of the organs and glands
parasympothetic division
foot in the door technique
a two-step compliance technique in which an influencer sets the stage for the real request by first getting a person to comply with a much smaller request
As you get older...
Over 65 your amplitude drops, and more awakenings
A longitudinal study is...
a research method in which data is collected about a group of participants over a number of years to assess how certain characteristics change or remain the same during development.
Which age group is most affected by the boomerang effect?
Middle aged married couples
Which drug(s) were most popular in Prehistoric Times (8500-4000 BC)?
Coca (tea)
Stimulants - reduced appetite in times of famine
bousfields Clustering Studies (he coined the word)
gave participants lists of words to recall in any order, and found ppl will cluster ideas together. Main idea that input and output order dont match. shows that during encoding you are categorizing.
name three anecdotes of the repreated exposure effect
commercials, summer vaca. romances, long-distance relationships
Gender and Depression - Nolen
Females 2x's likely to be diagnosed (26 vs. 12)
-Women tend to ruminate and amplify
-Men tend to dampen and minimize
-when rumination controlled differences in duration disappeared
nature of being
can assers that "I will be" or "I will not be"
three primaries law of color
almost any color can be created by combining just three wavelenghs
What are the situational sources of sport enjoyment?
competitive outcomes and processes and competitive recognition and valuable opportunities.
why do people shy away from being psychologically free?
closely aligned with dread--have an awareness that we are fully responsible of ourselves.
How can you tell the difference between a gamma and an epsilon alcoholic?
Epsilon is periodic drinking only - has never been chronic
identity vs role confusion: conflict unresolved
age 15 to 20, role confusion: lack of cohesive self image; "fragmented" self
How can one transform the patient's "I cannot" to "I will not"
"I cannot" is nonsence. we all have capacity to change
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