Chapter 44 AP Biology: Regulating the Internal Environment Flashcards

Blood vessel
Terms Definitions
osmoregulation
the control of water balance
excretion
process of getting rid of nitrogen-containing wastes
q10 effect
change in rate of reaction w/ a 10*C change in temp
=the multiple by which a particular reaction increases wirh a 10*C increase in body temp
convection
the transfer of heat by the movement of a liquid or gas past a surface
radiation
heat transfer by electromagnetic waves
ex: animal absorbs heat from sun
evaporation
removal of heat from the surface of a liquid that is losing some of its molecules as gas
ectotherm
An animal whose body does not produce much internal heat.
vasodilation
widening of the blood vessels that allows for increased blood flow
countercurrent heat exchanger
-anti parallel arrangement of blood vessels; warm blood from arteries transfer heat to colder blood in veins
-a special arrangement of blood vessels that helps trap heat in the body core and is important in reducing heat loss in many endotherms
nonshivering thermogenesis
The increased production of heat in some mammals by the action of certain hormones that cause mitochondria to increase their metabolic activity and produce heat instead of ATP.
brown fat
a tissue in the neck and between the shoulders that is specialized for rapid heat production.
acclimatization
a physiological adaptation to a new climate (a new temperature or altitude or environment)
stress-induced proteins
special molecules, including heat-shock proteins, that are produced within cells in response to exposure to marked increases in temperature and to other forms of severe stress such toxins, rapid pH changes, and viral infections
-help prevent cell death when an organism is challenged by severe climate changes
cryoprotectants
withstand body temps considerably below zero
torpor
a state of motor and mental inactivity with a partial suspension of sensibility
estivation
summer torpor
transport epithelium
-a layer or layers of specialized epithelial cells that regulate solute movements
-essential components of osmotic regulation and metabolic waste removal
urea
waste product formed in the liver by a process that combines ammonia with carbon dioxide, filtered out of the blood by the kidneys, and excreted in urine
uric acid
an insoluble precipitate of nitrogenous waste excreted by land snails, insects, and many reptiles, including birds
osmolarity
solute concentration expressed as molarity, or moles of solute per liter of solution
osmoconformer
animal that does not actively adjust its internal osmolarity because it is isotonic with its environment
stenohaline
organism having limited salinity tolerance
euryhaline
able to tolerate wide ranges of salinity
anhydrobiosis
invertebrates lose almost all water and survive in dormant state when environment dries up; when water is added, they come back to life
filtrate
-the product of filtration
-blood plasma without proteins, found in the nephrons of the kidneys.
protonephridium
a network of tubules lacking internal openings
metanephridium
another type of tubular excretory system that has internal openings that collect body fluids. They are found in most annelids, including earthworms.
renal artery
blood vessel that carries blood to the kidney
renal vein
blood vessel that carries blood away from the kidney and toward the heart
ureter
tube that carries urine from the kidney to the urinary bladder
urinary bladder
saclike organ in which urine is stored before being excreted
urethra
tube leading from the urinary bladder to the outside of the body
renal cortex
the outer portion of the kidney containing bownam's capsule, proximal, distal convoluted tubules, and associated blood vessels.
nephron
microscopic functional units of the kidney, comprised of kidney cells and capillaries, each capable of forming urine
glomerulus
-small network of capillaries encased in the upper end of a nephron
bowman's capsule
-cup-shaped structure of the nephron of a kidney which encloses the glomerulus
-where filtration takes place.
proximal tubule
first section of the renal tubule that the blood flows through; reabsorption of water, ions, and all organic nutrients
loop of Henle
section of the nephron tubule that conserves water and minimizes the volume of urine
-hairpin turn w/ a descending limb & ascending limb
distal tubule
in the vertebrate kidney, the portion of a nephron that helps refine filtrate and empties it into a collecting duct
collecting duct
the location in the kidney where processed filtrate, called urine
cortical nephrons
Nephrons located almost entirely in the renal cortex. These nephrons have a reduced loop of Henle.
juxtamedullary nephrons
nephrons with well-developed loops of Henle that extend deeply into the renal medulla
-only found in mammals & birds; adaption for water sonservation
afferent arteriole
The small artery that carries blood toward the capillaries of the glomerulus.
efferent arteriole
the blood vessel draining a nephron
vasa recta
The capillary system that serves the loop of Henle.
antidiuretic hormone
(ADH)
hormone secreted by the posterior pituitary gland (trade name Pitressin) and also by nerve endings in the hypothalamus
juxtaglomerular apparatus
(JGA)
in the nephron, the complex of cells from the distal tubule and the afferent arteriole which helps regulate blood pressure by secreting renin in response to blood pressure changes in the kidney; located near the glomerulus
angiotensin II
increases blood pressure by stimulating kidneys to reabsorb more water and by releasing aldosterone
aldosterone
"salt-retaining hormone" which promotes the retention of Na+ by the kidneys. na+ retention promotes water retention, which promotes a higher blood volume and pressure
renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system
(RAAS)
, Complex feedback circuit that functions in homeostasis to conserve salt and water by regulating blood pressure.
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