Policy Implementation, Evaluation, and Termination Flashcards

Essential evaluation activity
Terms Definitions
Policy Implementation
the stage where government executes an adopted policy as specified by the legislation or policy action.
formally made responsible
various government agencies and departments, responsible for the respective area of policy, are ________________ for implementation.
policy action
Policy implementation is the stage in the policy process where ___________ occurs to address a recognized policy problem.
instruments
In implementation, selected _________ are applied reflective of the legislative mandate, bureaucratic interpretation, and capacity.
tangible effects
In implementation, Specified target populations, and the society, experience the first ____________ of the policy
constraints and challenges
Effective and efficient policy actions require consideration be given to the ___________________ of implementation.
Bureaucracy
The major policy implementation actor.
Rule-Making
process through which broad and ambiguous statutory mandates are made more specific (hint: proposed, interim, final)
Theories of Policy Implementation
top-down, bottom-up and synthesis approaches
Challenges to Policy Implementation
Clarity of Policy Goals, Information Intelligence, Strategic Planning:
Steps to Strategic Planning
Statement of agency goals, mission, or vision; Adoption of a time frame; Assessment of present capabilities; Assessment of organizational environment; Development of a strategic plan; Organizational integration
translated into action, execution and impact
Policy implementation matters because it is at this stage in the policy process where words get _______________ and where design leads to ___________________.
ends
Throughout the implementation process policy designers and implementers must stress the importance of ________.
doing what it is supposed to
The purpose of evaluation is to determine whether an implemented program is ________________________.
intended or unintended, positive or negative
Through evaluation we can determine whether a policy's effects are _________________ and whether the results are _______________ for the target population and society as a whole.
quality, goal attainment, program effectiveness, impact, and costs
Policy Evaluation can be better defined as a process by which general judgments about ______________ (5 things) can be determined
Types of Policy Evaluation
Process; Outcome; Impact; Cost-Benefit Analysis
Process
__________ Evaluation: Determine why a program or policy is performing at current levels. Identify any problems. Develop solutions to the problems. Improve program performance by recommending how solutions should be implemented and evaluated once carried out.
Outcome
__________ Evaluation: Legislative Intent Program Goals Program Elements and Indicators Measures of Indicators Program Outcomes (Positive or Negative)
Impact
__________ Evaluation: Theoretical Goals of the Program or Policy The Actual Goals Program or Policy Objectives Program or policy results and whether they are intended or unintended, positive or negative in effect.
Cost-Benefit Analysis
evaluate and assess the effectiveness of a policy's costs, benefits, and outcomes.
goals and objectives
Essential evaluation activity: Identification of __________ of the program or policy to make measurement possible.
mission statement
Essential evaluation activity: Comprehension of the ___________ or noting the absence of one.
analytic model, means-ends
Essential evaluation activity: Construction of an _____________ of what the program or policy is expected to achieve; this includes a set of theoretical propositions about ____________ relationships.
research design
Essential evaluation activity: Development of a ____________ to distinguish program or policy goals from what is actually achieved.
collection, analysis and interpretation
Essential evaluation activity: _____________ of data.
internal or external
Two descriptors of who conducts the evaluation.
policy change
When a policy is replaced or modified in some respect or repealed in parts, then __________ has occurred.
reformulated, and re-implemented
Policies are formulated, adopted, implemented, evaluated, ___________________, and the cycle continues.
Policy Succession
Modification of Existing Practices Enactment of New Legislative Statutes Major Shifts in Goals and Direction of Objectives
Reasons for Policy Change
Changes in societal dynamics. New policies may contradict or invalidate an existing policy. The legality or constitutionality of a policy is challenged. Technological changes alter the feasibility or relevance. New discoveries or revelations alter public support. Economic and political conditions change. Power shift due to election results. The problem is solved. Implementing agencies may lack the skill to manage the policy. Once implemented, policy defects become apparent. Target groups refuse to comply with or mobilize against the policy.
Policy Termination
the deliberate conclusion or cessation of specific public sector functions, programs, policies, or organizations.
survive
Why policy termination is rare: The desire of organizations to ____________.
The creation of new goals
Why policy termination is rare: __________________________ helps legitimize the organization's continued existence.
current laws
Why policy termination is rare: Some programs must exist because of _____________ - i.e. public education.
cheaper
Why policy termination is rare: It is often __________ to keep a program going than it is to terminate it.
Reasons for Policy Termination
The policy is no longer effective. The need for the program no longer exists. Budgetary requirements force the end of the policy or program. An evaluation study makes the case that the policy is unsatisfactory in impact or outcome. The political environment may no longer support the goals of a policy. Some policies or programs are terminated purely for ideological reasons.
Types of Policy Termination
Functional, Organizational, Policy, Program
Functional Termination
a dramatic and complete ending of government responsibility as stipulated in a particular policy or program. Example: Program Privatization.
Organizational Termination
elimination of an entire agency. Example: The elimination of the Congressional Office of Technology Assessment in 1995.
Policy Termination
the complete abandonment because the underlying principles no longer have common societal agreement. Example: Abandonment of Jim Crow Laws in the South during the 1960s.
Program Termination
elimination of a particular aspect of a policy that is implemented. The overall policy remains in effect. The most common type of termination because the number of actors involved or affected is limited. Example: In 1986 Reagan terminated Revenue Sharing adopted during the Nixon administration.
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