APES #1 Ecology Environmental Problems Intro Flashcards

Terms Definitions
affluenza
Unsustainable addiction to overconsumption and materialism exhibited in the lifestyles of affluent consumers in the United States and other developed countries.
agricultural revolution
Gradual shift from small, mobile hunting and gathering bands to settled agricultural communities in which people survived by learning how to breed and raise wild animals and to cultivate wild plants near where they lived. It began 10,000/12,000 years ago. Compare environmental revolution, hunter/gatherers, industrial/medical revolution, and information and globalization revolution.
biodiversity
Variety of different species (species diversity), genetic variability among individuals within each species (genetic diversity), variety of ecosystems (ecological diversity), and functions such as energy flow and matter cycling needed for the survival of species and biological communities (functional diversity).
common-property
Resource that people normally are free to use; each user can deplete or degrade the available supply. Most are renewable and owned by no one.).
common-property Examples
are clean air, fish in parts of the ocean not under the control of a coastal country, migratory birds, gases of the lower atmosphere, and the ozone content of the upper atmosphere (stratosphere
conservation
Sensible and careful use of natural resources by humans.
conservationist
Person concerned with using natural areas and wildlife in ways that sustain them for current and future generations of humans and other forms of life.
developed country
is highly industrialized and has a high per capita GNP..
developing country
has low to moderate industrialization and low to moderate per capita GNP. Most are located in Africa, Asia, and Latin America.
doubling time
The time it takes (usually in years) for the quantity of something growing exponentially to double. It can be calculated by dividing the annual percentage growth rate into 70.
durability
Ability of earth's various systems, including human cultural systems and economies, to survive and adapt to changing environmental conditions indefinitely. This is another name for sustainability.
ecological footprint
Amount of biologically productive land and water needed to supply each person or population with the renewable resources they use and to absorb or dispose of the wastes from such resource use. It measures the average environmental impact of individuals or populations in different countries and areas.
ecologist
scientist who studies relationships between living organisms and their environment.
ecology
Study of the interactions of living organisms with one another and with their nonliving environment of matter and energy; study of the structure and functions of nature.
economic development
Improvement of living standards by economic growth. Compare economic growth, environmentally sustainable economic development.
economic growth
Increase in the capacity to provide people with goods and services produced by an economy; an increase in gross domestic product (GDP).
environment
All external conditions and factors, living and nonliving (chemicals and energy), that affect an organism or other specified system during its lifetime.
environmental degradation
Depletion or destruction of a potentially renewable resource such as soil, grassland, forest, or wildlife that is used faster than it is naturally replenished.
environmental ethics
Human beliefs about what is right or wrong environmental behavior.
environmental movement
Efforts by citizens at the grassroots level to demand that political leaders enact laws and develop policies to curtail pollution, clean up polluted environments, and protect pristine areas and species from environmental degradation.
environmental revolution
Cultural change involving halting population growth and altering lifestyles, political and economic systems, and the way we treat the environment so that we can help sustain the earth for ourselves and other species.
environmental scientist
who uses information from the physical sciences and social sciences to understand how the earth works, learns how humans interact with the earth, and develop solutions to environmental problems.
environmental ethics
How people think the world works, what they think their role in the world should be, and what they believe is right and wrong environmental behavior
environmentalism
A social movement dedicated to protecting the earth's life support systems for us and other species.
environmentalist
who is concerned about the impact of people on environmental quality and believe that some human actions are degrading parts of the earth's life-support systems for humans and many other forms of life..
environmentally sustainable economic development
encourages forms of economic growth that meet the basic needs of the current generations of humans and other species without preventing future generations of humans and other species from meeting their basic needs and discourages environmentally harmful and unsustainable forms of economic growth.
environmentally sustainable society
satisfies the basic needs of its people without depleting or degrading its natural resources and thereby preventing current and future generations of humans and other species from meeting their basic needs.
EPA
responsible for managing federal efforts to control air and water pollution, radiation and pesticide hazards, environmental research, hazardous waste, and solid-solid waste disposal.
exponential growth
in which some quantity, such as population size or economic output, increases at a constant rate per unit of time. An example is the growth sequence 2, 4, 8, 16, 32, 64 and so on; when the increase in quantity over time is plotted, this type of growth yields a curve shaped like the letter J.
free-access resource
common-property resource.
frontier environmental view
Viewing undeveloped land as a hostile wilderness to be conquered (cleared, planted) and exploited for its resources as quickly as possible..
globalization
Broad process of global social, economic, and environmental change that leads to an increasingly integrated world. See information and globalization revolution.
gross domestic product (GDP)
Annual market value of all goods and services produced by all firms and organizations, foreign and domestic, operating within a country.
human-centered environmental views
Humans are the planet's most important species and should become managers or stewards of the earth.
Hunter/gatherers
People who get their food by gathering edible wild plants and other materials and by hunting wild animals and fish.
Industrial/medical revolution
Use of new sources of energy from fossil fuels and later from nuclear fuels, and use of new technologies, to grow food and manufacture products.
information and globalization revolution
Use of new technologies such as the telephone, radio, television, computers, the Internet, automated databases, and remote sensing satellites to enable people to have increasingly rapid access to much more information on a global scale.
multiple use
Use of an ecosystem such as a forest for a variety of purposes such as timber harvesting, wildlife habitat, watershed protection, and recreation.
nonpoint source
Large or dispersed land areas such as crop fields, streets, and lawns that discharge pollutants into the environment over a large area..
nonrenewable resource
Resource that exists in a fixed amount (stock) in various places in the earth's crust and has the potential for renewal by geological, physical, and chemical processes taking place over hundreds of millions to billions of years. Examples are copper, aluminum, coal, and oil.
nonrenewable resource
these resources as exhaustible because we are extracting and using them at a much faster rate than they were formed.
per capita ecological footprint
Amount of biologically productive land and water needed to supply each person or population with the renewable resources they use and to absorb or dispose of the wastes from such resource use. It measures the average environmental impact of individuals or populations in different countries and areas.
per capita GDP
Annual gross domestic product of a country divided by its total population at mid-year midyear. It gives the average slice of the economic pie per person. Used to be called per capita GNP.
perpetual resource
An essentially inexhaustible resource on a human time scale. Solar energy is an example.
point source
Single identifiable source that discharges pollutants into the environment. Examples are the smokestack of a power plant or an industrial plant, drainpipe of a meatpacking plant, chimney of a house, or exhaust pipe of an automobile.
pollutant
A particular chemical or form of energy that can adversely affect the health, survival, or activities of humans or other living organisms.
pollution
An undesirable change in the physical, chemical, or biological characteristics of air, water, soil, or food that can adversely affect the health, survival, or activities of humans or other living organisms.
pollution cleanup
Device or process that removes or reduces the level of a pollutant after it has been produced or has entered the environment. Examples are automobile emission control devices and sewage treatment plants.
pollution prevention
Device or process that prevents a potential pollutant from forming or entering the environment or sharply reduces the amount entering the environment.
affluenza
Unsustainable addiction to overconsumption and materialism exhibited in the lifestyles of affluent consumers in the United States and other developed countries.
agricultural revolution
Gradual shift from small, mobile hunting and gathering bands to settled agricultural communities in which people survived by learning how to breed and raise wild animals and to cultivate wild plants near where they lived. It began 10,000/12,000 years ago. Compare environmental revolution, hunter/gatherers, industrial/medical revolution, and information and globalization revolution.
biodiversity
Variety of different species (species diversity), genetic variability among individuals within each species (genetic diversity), variety of ecosystems (ecological diversity), and functions such as energy flow and matter cycling needed for the survival of species and biological communities (functional diversity).
common-property
Resource that people normally are free to use; each user can deplete or degrade the available supply. Most are renewable and owned by no one.).
common-property Examples
are clean air, fish in parts of the ocean not under the control of a coastal country, migratory birds, gases of the lower atmosphere, and the ozone content of the upper atmosphere (stratosphere
conservation
Sensible and careful use of natural resources by humans.
conservationist
Person concerned with using natural areas and wildlife in ways that sustain them for current and future generations of humans and other forms of life.
developed country
is highly industrialized and has a high per capita GNP..
developing country
has low to moderate industrialization and low to moderate per capita GNP. Most are located in Africa, Asia, and Latin America.
doubling time
The time it takes (usually in years) for the quantity of something growing exponentially to double. It can be calculated by dividing the annual percentage growth rate into 70.
durability
Ability of earth's various systems, including human cultural systems and economies, to survive and adapt to changing environmental conditions indefinitely. This is another name for sustainability.
ecological footprint
Amount of biologically productive land and water needed to supply each person or population with the renewable resources they use and to absorb or dispose of the wastes from such resource use. It measures the average environmental impact of individuals or populations in different countries and areas.
ecologist
scientist who studies relationships between living organisms and their environment.
ecology
Study of the interactions of living organisms with one another and with their nonliving environment of matter and energy; study of the structure and functions of nature.
economic development
Improvement of living standards by economic growth. Compare economic growth, environmentally sustainable economic development.
economic growth
Increase in the capacity to provide people with goods and services produced by an economy; an increase in gross domestic product (GDP).
environment
All external conditions and factors, living and nonliving (chemicals and energy), that affect an organism or other specified system during its lifetime.
environmental degradation
Depletion or destruction of a potentially renewable resource such as soil, grassland, forest, or wildlife that is used faster than it is naturally replenished.
environmental ethics
Human beliefs about what is right or wrong environmental behavior.
environmental movement
Efforts by citizens at the grassroots level to demand that political leaders enact laws and develop policies to curtail pollution, clean up polluted environments, and protect pristine areas and species from environmental degradation.
environmental revolution
Cultural change involving halting population growth and altering lifestyles, political and economic systems, and the way we treat the environment so that we can help sustain the earth for ourselves and other species.
environmental scientist
who uses information from the physical sciences and social sciences to understand how the earth works, learns how humans interact with the earth, and develop solutions to environmental problems.
environmental ethics
How people think the world works, what they think their role in the world should be, and what they believe is right and wrong environmental behavior
environmentalism
A social movement dedicated to protecting the earth's life support systems for us and other species.
environmentalist
who is concerned about the impact of people on environmental quality and believe that some human actions are degrading parts of the earth's life-support systems for humans and many other forms of life..
environmentally sustainable economic development
encourages forms of economic growth that meet the basic needs of the current generations of humans and other species without preventing future generations of humans and other species from meeting their basic needs and discourages environmentally harmful and unsustainable forms of economic growth.
environmentally sustainable society
satisfies the basic needs of its people without depleting or degrading its natural resources and thereby preventing current and future generations of humans and other species from meeting their basic needs.
EPA
responsible for managing federal efforts to control air and water pollution, radiation and pesticide hazards, environmental research, hazardous waste, and solid-solid waste disposal.
exponential growth
in which some quantity, such as population size or economic output, increases at a constant rate per unit of time. An example is the growth sequence 2, 4, 8, 16, 32, 64 and so on; when the increase in quantity over time is plotted, this type of growth yields a curve shaped like the letter J.
free-access resource
common-property resource.
frontier environmental view
Viewing undeveloped land as a hostile wilderness to be conquered (cleared, planted) and exploited for its resources as quickly as possible..
globalization
Broad process of global social, economic, and environmental change that leads to an increasingly integrated world. See information and globalization revolution.
gross domestic product (GDP)
Annual market value of all goods and services produced by all firms and organizations, foreign and domestic, operating within a country.
human-centered environmental views
Humans are the planet's most important species and should become managers or stewards of the earth.
Hunter/gatherers
People who get their food by gathering edible wild plants and other materials and by hunting wild animals and fish.
Industrial/medical revolution
Use of new sources of energy from fossil fuels and later from nuclear fuels, and use of new technologies, to grow food and manufacture products.
information and globalization revolution
Use of new technologies such as the telephone, radio, television, computers, the Internet, automated databases, and remote sensing satellites to enable people to have increasingly rapid access to much more information on a global scale.
multiple use
Use of an ecosystem such as a forest for a variety of purposes such as timber harvesting, wildlife habitat, watershed protection, and recreation.
nonpoint source
Large or dispersed land areas such as crop fields, streets, and lawns that discharge pollutants into the environment over a large area..
nonrenewable resource
Resource that exists in a fixed amount (stock) in various places in the earth's crust and has the potential for renewal by geological, physical, and chemical processes taking place over hundreds of millions to billions of years. Examples are copper, aluminum, coal, and oil.
nonrenewable resource
these resources as exhaustible because we are extracting and using them at a much faster rate than they were formed.
/ 90
Term:
Definition:
Definition:

Leave a Comment ({[ getComments().length ]})

Comments ({[ getComments().length ]})

{[comment.username]}

{[ comment.comment ]}

View All {[ getComments().length ]} Comments
Ask a homework question - tutors are online