Abeka Biology Gods living creation ch. 15 Intro to Ecology Flashcards

Terms Definitions
Ecology
the branch of biology concerned with the relations between organisms and their environment
Habitat
the type of environment in which an organism or group normally lives or occurs
biosphere
part of Earth in which life exists including land, water, and air or atmosphere
climax vegetation
species of plants which dominate the region
biodiversity
the diversity of plant and animal life in a particular habitat (or in the world as a whole)
carrying capacity
largest number of individuals of a population that a environment can support
limiting factor
factor that causes the growth of a population to decrease
autotrophs
organisms that make their own food
heterotrophs
organisms that cannot make their own food
scavenger
any animal that feeds on refuse and other decaying organic matter
decomposers
organisms that break down wastes and dead organisms and return raw materials to the environment
detritivores
organisms that consume organic litter debris and dung.
trophic level
each step in a food chain or food web
niche
(ecology) the status of an organism within its environment and community (affecting its survival as a species)
niche
(ecology) the status of an organism within its environment and community (affecting its survival as a species)
symbiosis
the relation between two different species of organisms that are interdependent
biogeochemical cycle
process in which elements, chemical compounds, and other forms of matter are passed from one organism to another and from one part of the biosphere to another
permafrost
ground that is permanently frozen
pioneer species
first species to populate an area during primary succession
ecological succession
(ecology) the gradual and orderly process of change in an ecosystem brought about by the progressive replacement of one community by another until a stable climax is established
what are the 5 levels of ecology
1.Biome
2. ecosystem
3. community
4. population
5. organism
2 general kinds of ecosystems
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2 types of aquatic ecosystems
Marine and Freshwater
3 processes that make up the hydrologic cycle
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2 main atmospheric cycles
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The main sedimentary cycle
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What is the difference between biotic and abiotic factors
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how is a producer different from a consumer
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describe the first four trophic level of a food chain
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what is the difference between primary and secondary ecological succession
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describe the three types of symbiotic relationships described in this chapter and include one example for each type.
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what are the 5 types of marine ecosystems and where is each type found
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15.1 -1how does the meaning of the word ecology relate to this branch of science?
ecology means home or houses so ecology is the study of home of animals. it is the study of how animals interact in community. understand and describe the relationships among living things.
15.1-2 under what general category of ecosystems would a freshwater lake fall?
aquatic
15.1-4 would a hive of bees in a tree be best described as a community, a population, or an organism?
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15.1 if you described your school as an ecosystem at what level of ecology would you place yourself?
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biotic factor
a living part of an ecosystem
abiotic factor
a nonliving part of an ecosystem
John Ray
English naturalist; defined the terms Genus and species. Genus: a group of closely related organisms. Species: a group of organisms that are structurally similar and can pass these similarities on to their off-spring (capable of mating or breeding to produce fertile offspring).
ecosystem
collection of all the organisms that live in a particular place, together with their nonliving environment
15.2-1 Why does geographic location affect the amount of sunlight an ecosystem receives?
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15.2-2 How does altitude limit plant and animal life at high elevations>?
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15.2-3 Descriptive the influence of global wind patterns on different ecosystems?
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15.2-4 How does soil affect the animal life in an ecosystem?
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15.2-5 Contrast the terms Tolerance range and optimum range.
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15.2-6 What is the temperature tolerance range for most living organisms?
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15.3-1 Explain the relationship between producers and consumers?
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15.3-2 How do the feeding habits of herbivores, carnivores, and omnivores differ?
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15.3.3 What purpose do decomposers serve in the food chain?
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15.3-4 Approximately how much of the sun's energy that strikes a plant is actually captured and stored by that plant?
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15.3-5 How does a food chain differ from a food web?
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15.3-6 Why are energy pyramids always right side up?
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15.3-7 How does a biomass pyramid differ from a number of pyramid??
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15.3-8 Could a number pyramid be inverted? Explain.
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food chain
a series of steps in which organisms transfer energy by eating and being eaten
energy pyramid
a diagram that shows the amount of energy that moves from one feeding level to another in a food web
biomass
plant materials and animal waste used as fuel
15.4-1 Contrast mutualism and parasitism
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15.4-2 Heart worms are organisms which live in a dog circulatory system. the worms benefit from the relationship but the dog is harmed. What term would best describe this symbiotic relationship?
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15.4-3 What type of nutritional relationship does a lion have with an antelope?
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15.4-4 What is nutrient cycle?
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15.4-5 Name some of the resources and nutrients that are recycled by the various nutrient cycles.
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15.4-6 What three major processes are involved in the hydrologic cycle?
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15.4-7 Why would the relationship between a predator like a wolf and a plant like a clover be considered neutral? could these organisms be indirectly related, and if so, how?
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15.4-8 How is a farmer's relationship with his crops mutually beneficial?
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15.4-9 List some of teh biotic factors involved in the carbon oxygen cycle and explain their particular roles.
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15.4-10 What are some biotic factors in the nitrogen cycle? ch. 1 p. 8 What are some biotic factors involved in the nitrogen cycle? are there any abiotic factors to be considered?
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commensalism
a relationship between two organisms in which one organism benefits and the other is unaffected
competition
the struggle between organisms to survive in a habitat with limited resources
amensalism
relationship in which one organism inhibits another
herbivory
interaction in which one animal (the herbivore) feeds on producers (such as plants)
15.5-1 Why do ecologists classify biomes according to plant life rather than animal life?
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15.5-2 what are some abiotoc factors that influence the development of different climax vegetation in different biomes?
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15.5-3 Where is the Arctic tundra biome found? alpine tundra?
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15.5-4 How does the vegetation of a northern coniferous forest differ from the vegetation of a temperate deciduous forest? Which type of forest is known for its brilliant display of color in the fall season?
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15.5-5 Why are there fewer varieties of wildlife in tundra biomes than in forest biomes?
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15.5-6 What makes the soil in a grassland biome so fertile? What abiotic factor inhibits the growth of trees in grasslands?
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15.5-7 Both deserts and tropical rain forests are found near the equator, yet these biomes contain very different ecosystems. Explain.
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15.5-8 Name the two major divisions of aquatic biomes. what is the main difference between the two?
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15.5-9 List the seven major biomes discussed in the text and give a brief description of the climax vegetation in each.
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15.5-10 Why is Australia Barrier Reef to well-populated with living things?
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estuary
the area where a freshwater stream or river merges with the ocean
coral reef
a reef consisting of coral consolidated into limestone
intertidal zone
area of shore between the high-tide and low-tide lines
neritic zone
area of ocean that extends from the low-tide line out to the edge of the continental shelf
oceanic zone
The region of water lying over deep areas beyond the continental shelf.
15.6-1 Give three examples of natural disturbances which could change a community.
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15.6-2 Which type of ecological succession begins with a totally barren, lifeless area? What kind of natural disturbance might prepare a community for this process?
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15.6-3 Which type of succession occurs more rapidly? What kind of disturbances could lead to this process?
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15.6-4 for what purpose did God give man authority over His living creation?
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15.6-5 Define the term Stewardship in the context of man's God-given dominion over creation?
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15.6-6 Why are lichen and mosses usually the first plants to colonize a community in primary succession?
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15.6-7 How do these organisms help prepare the ground for other plant species?
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15.6-8 Give some examples of biblical stewardhip that you have observed. Refer to 15.10
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15.6-9 sOME ENVIRONMENTALISTS OPPOSE THE DEVELOPMENT OF NATURAL RESOURCES for man;s benefit. What biblical princilple does this contradict? use scripture.
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