Intro to Sociology, Chapter 15: Population, Urbanization, and Environment Flashcards

Terms Definitions
Demography
The study of human population.
Fertility
The incidence of childbearing in a country's population.
Crude birth rate
The number of live births in a given year for every 1,000 people in a population.
Mortality
The incidence of death in a country's population.
Crude death rate
The number of deaths in a given year for every 1,000 people in a population.
Infant mortality rate
The number of deaths among infants under one year of age for each 1,000 live births in a given year.
Life expectancy
The average life span of a country's population.
Migration
The movement of people into and out of a specified territory.
Sex ratio
The number of males for every 100 females in a nation's population.
Age-sex pyramid
A graphic representation of the age and sex of a population.
Malthusian theory
Warned that rapid population increase would lead to social chaos.
Demographic transition theory
A thesis that links population patterns to a society's level of technological development.
Zero population growth
The rate of reproduction that maintains population at a steady level.
Urbanization
The concentration of population into cities.
Metropolis
A large city that dominates an urban area socially and economically.
Suburbs
Urban areas beyond the political boundaries of a society.
Megalopolis
A vast urban region containing a number of cities and their surrounding suburbs.
Gemeinschaft
A type of social organization in which people are closely tied by kinship and tradition.
Gesellschaft
A type of social organization in which people come together only on the basis of individual self interest.
Ferdinand Tonnies
Developed the concepts of Gemeinschaft and Gesellschaft.
Emile Durkheim
Used the term "mechanical solidarity" to refer to Gemeinschaft and "organic solidarity" to refer to Gesellschaft.
Georg Simmel
Developed the "Blase Urbanite" analysis.
The Chicago School
Developed a thesis which stated that, in city life, people are known in terms of what they do, rather than who they are.
Urban ecology
The study of the link between the physical and social dimensions of cities.
Ecology
The study of the interaction of living organisms and the natural environment.
Natural environment
Earth's surface and atmosphere, including living organisms, air, water, soil, and other resources necessary to sustain life.
Ecosystem
The interaction of all living organisms and their natural environment.
Environmental deficit
Profound long-term harm to the natural environment caused by humanity's focus on short-term material affluence.
Rain forests
Regions of dense forestation located mostly close to the equator.
Global warming
A rise in Earth's average temperature due to an increasing concentration of carbon dioxide in the atmosphere.
Environmental racism
Patterns of development that expose poor people, especially minorities, to environmental hazards.
Ecologically sustainable culture
A way of life that meets the needs of the present generation without threatening the environmental legacy of future generations.
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