Chapter 25 McKay AP European History Flashcards

Terms Definitions
Napoleon III (Louis Napoleon)
- He was elected President of France through universal male suffrage in Dec. 1848. He was elected because 1. He had his uncles (Bonaparte) great name. 2. Middle class and peasant property owners feared the socialistic changes that Marx stresses so they wanted a strong ruler to protect them. 3. He had a positive program for France. - He believed that the president should serve all the people and disliked parliament and political parties b/c they represented special interests. - At the end of his 4 year term the National Assembly had failed to change the constitution so he could run a second term, so on Dec. 2 1851 he illegally dismissed the assembly and seized power in a coup d'etat. Then he called on the French people to legalize his actions and 92% voted him president for 10 years. A year later 97% voted him hereditary emperor of France. - In the 1850's he brought great economic success to France. His gov't promoted new investment banks, railroad constructions and ambitious public work programs which included rebuilding Paris. During this time the profits of business people soared and unemployment declined. - He also supported the working class by regulation pawn shops, supporting credit unions, improving housing and in the 1860's granting the rights to form unions and to strike. - In the 1860's he agreed to more liberal changes in the gov't, granting more power to the assembly and accepting a new constitution.
Giuseppe Mazzini
He wanted centralized democratic republic and universal male suffrage in Italy.
Vincenzo Gioberti
A Catholic priest. He wanted a federation of existing stats under the presidency of a progressive pope in Italy.
Victor Emmanuel
-Monarch of Sardinia-Piedmont. He ruled with a liberal constitution which gave a fair amount of civil liberties, utilized a real parliamentary gov't with members elected and limited franchise based on income. (Many middle class Italians believed this was too liberal). - Wanted to unite Italy under the leadership of his kingdom. - He became monarch of the new kingdom of Italy afer the people of the south voted to join Italy.
Pius IX
(r. 1846-178) Pope. - He gave cautious support for unification of Italy, but was driven from Rome in 1848 and the papacy opposed national unification and most modern trends.
Camillo Benso di Cavour
- A part of the Sarinian gov't from 1850-1861. - From a noble family before politics he made a fortune in sugar mills, steamships, and railroads. - He wanted unity from northern and possible central Italy by expanding the kingdom of Sardinia. - He wanted to strengthen Sardinia as a liberal constitutional state. - His program of highways, railroads, civil liberties and his opposition to clerical privilege increased the support for Sardinia throughout Northern Italy. However, Lombardy and Venetia were currently controlled by Austria. So he created a secret alliance with Napoleon III against Austria. - He succeeded in getting Austria to attack Sardinia in 1859 and Napoleon III came to Sardinia's aid. But after the Franco-Sardinian forces beat Austria, Napoleon changed his mind so Sardinia only won Lombardy, the rest of Italy remained unchanged.
Giuseppe Garibaldi
(1807-1882) - A super patriot who wanted complete unification of Italy. - He was secretly supported by Cavour. When in May 1860 he and a band of a thousand guerillas called Red Shirts landed on the shores of Sicily. They won battles, gained volunteers, took over Palermo and marched toward Naples to attack Rome. - Cavour sent Sardinian forces to occupy the Papal States, all but Rome and to intercept Garibaldi (Cavour wanted to stop attack on Rome to prevent war with France and keep Garibaldi under control).
Red Shirts
The guerilla army that landed in Sicily and was led by Garibaldi.
Zolverein
- German customs union founded in 1834 to stimulate trade and increase revenues of member states. - Austria was NOT included but all other German states were. So Austria attempted to destroy the Zollverein but was unsuccessful.
William I
(1861-1888) - In Prussia. - Was concerned there would be a war with Austria or possibly France so he wanted to double the size of the army, but this meant more money on defense and higher taxes. - Prussia had a Parliament of sorts, the wealthy middle class was over represented and they wanted a less militaristic society and to establish that they were the ultimate political power NOT the king. So they rejected the new military budget in 1862. - He asks Otto von Bismarck to head a new ministry and defy parliament.
Otto von Bismarck
(1815-1898) - He was the most important person in German history between Luther and Hitler. - From landowning aristocracy, master of politics with desire for power. - Too office as chief minister of Prussia in 1862. - Declared gov't would rule without parliamentary consent.
Schleswig-Holstein
Provinces that were fought over.
Austro-Prussian War
In 1866 lasting only 7 weeks: - After defeating Denmark Bismarck was convinced Prussia needed to control the northern part of the German confederation. He knew this could not be done unless Austria was out of German affairs. Also, Russia and France had to be neutralized so they did not attempt to stop Prussia. Bismarck utilized railroads and the new breach-loading need gun to reorganize the Prussian army and over run northern Germany.
Battle of Sadowa
- During the Austro-Prussian war, where the Prussian army defeated Austria in Bohemia. Bismarck offered Austria generous peace terms- Prussia took no territory from Austria, but Venetia was given to Italy and Austria paid no reparations. So Austria agreed to withdraw from Prussian affairs. And the German confederation was dissolved.
North German Confederation
The states north of the main river, led by Prussia. - Bismarck created a new constitution for them- Each state kept its own local gov't. King of Prussia became president of the confederation. The Chancellor (Bismarck) was responsible only to the president. Federal gov't (William I and Bismarck) controlled the army and foreign affairs. Legislature had two houses sharing equally in the making of laws. Upper house delegates were appointed by different states and lower house was elected by universal single class male suffrage.
Hermann Baumgarten
A history professor and member of the liberal opposition. He changed his position and respectfully supported the king and Bismarck and believed the constitutional struggle was over.
Franco-Prussian War
- Bismarck wanted to bring the Sothern states to be unified so he formulated a plan for a patriotic war with France to get them to come into the unified states. He created an issue with the French over the possibility that a distant relative of William I would become King of Spain.
German Empire
After the war the Southern German states joined the German Confederation and Alsace and part of Lorraine were added. The constitution (same as N. Germ. Confed.) was used with the lower house being elected by universal male suffrage and William I was proclaimed Emperor of Germany in the hall of mirrors in Versailles. - Due to Bismarck's genius the weakest of the great powers in 1862 was now the most powerful state in Europe in less than a decade. There was a strong feeling of nationalism under the semi authoritarian regime.
Confederate States of America
The Southern states who attempted to secede from the union.
American Civil War
A war between the Northern and Southern states over slavery.
Homestead Act
U.S. gave free land to people who wanted to go west and settle in the new territory.
Modernization
The changes that enable a country to compete effectively with the leading countries at a given time (fits Russia after the Crimean War well).
Crimean War
From 1854-1856. - A dispute with France over who should protect certain Christian shrines in the Ottoman Empire. - The fighting was concentrated in the Crimean peninsula on the Black sea, Russia's transportation system failed to supply their armies. - France and GB with assistance from Sardinia and the Ottoman Empire humiliatingly defeated Russia. This proved Russia had fallen behind in their transportation and weaponry.
Zemstvo
Started in 1864, a local gov't assembly made up of elected members from 3 areas, towns, peasant villages and noble landowners. It was under the local nobility. They hoped it would lead to a national parliament, but it didn't.
Alexander II
(r. 1855-1881). The military defeat made it urgent to focus on social change and general modernization of Russia. In 1861 he freed the serfs and divided the land into peasant villages where all the peasants there owned and were responsible for that land. This had limited success as it was difficult for the peasants to make changes as a group and they were tied to a village. - Began an industrial surge to catch up with the western countries. By 1880 railroads were increased from 1250 to 15,500 miles which enabled them to export grain to generate more money to further industrialization, these improvements created a class of modern factory workers. Industrialization also strengthened their military forces and allowed them to expand their territory to the south and the east. - In 1881 he was assassinated by a small group of terrorists and with his death the era of reform came to an end.
Alexander III
(r. 1881-1894). He was a reactionary and more concerned with Russia's economic difficulties in the 1880's. He began to make improvements after appointing a competent minister of finance in 1892.
Sergei Witte
- The minister of finance in Russia from 1892-1903. - He was inspired by the writing of List. And believed the industrial backwardness of Russia was threatening her power and greatness.
Accomplishments under Witte's leadership
1. State owned railroads were doubled by end of the century. 2. A trans Siberian line, connecting Moscow to Vladivostok on the Pacific Ocean was built. 3. Established high protective tariffs. 4. Put Russia on same gold standard as the rest of the world. 5. He got western investors to pay for/build industry in Russia. Steel and coal industry built, and became fourth in steel production and refined half the world's oil.
Sphere of Influence
Established by Russia in Chinese Manchuna.
Russo-Japanese War
The diplomatic protests of Japan were ignored and they launched a surprise attack in Feb. 1904. The Japanese scored repeated victories and in Sept. 1905 Russia was forced to accept defeat. This military disaster led to upheaval in Russia.
Revolution of 1905
Events- A group of workers and their families led by father Gapon peacefully gathered at the winter palace in St. Petersburg to present the tsar with a petition. However, Nicholas II the tsar had fled the city and the troops opened fire on the people killing hundreds of people.
Sunday Massacre
When the troops opened fire on and killed many people of Russia during the Revolution of 1905.
October Manifesto
It was Iissued by Nicholas II. Ended the revolution of 1905 by granting full civil rights and promising a popularly elected Duma (parliament) with real legislative power. The manifesto split the opposition, middle class leaders helped the gov't repress the uprising and survive as a constitutional monarchy.
Duma
Elected indirectly by universal male suffrage in May 1906. The government the new constitution in 1906 called the Fundamental laws in this constitution the tsar retained great powers. And upper house could debate and pass laws but the tsar had full veto power. The tsar appointed his own ministers. The tsar dismissed the Duma because they didn't agree with the constitution.. in 1907 a new Duma was elected, it was more hostile and radical and after three months it was dismissed too. The next Duma in 1907 and 1912 had half the seats held bu landowners and provided the tsar with a loyal minority.
Peter Stolypin
The chief minister of Russia and with the new loyal Duma he was able to pass agricultural reforms designed to breakdown collective village ownership of land which encouraged peasants to be more enterprising. As a result, in 1914 Russia was partially modernized, had a conservative constitutional monarchy with a peasant based but industrializing economy.
Reichstag
The lower house of the national German government. Members were popularly elected.
KulturKampf
(Struggle for Civilization). Bismarck's attack on the Catholic Church and backed by the national liberals. An attack on the church because the church was pushing people to put the church above their nation which alarmed Bismarck and middle class liberals. In 1878 he ended his attack when he and the Catholic center Party entered into an alliance for economic reasons.
Junkers
- People who owned large estates in eastern Germany.
William II
(r. 1888-1918). - A young emperor and idealistic. - Opposed to Bismarck's attempts to renew the law banning the Social Democratic Party. And he was eager to gain the support of workers and to rule on his own so he forced Bismarck to resign. - German foreign policy changed mostly for the worst, new laws were passed to aid workers and socialist political activity was legalized. - He was not successful in getting workers to renounce socialism, instead it spread rapidly and more and more social democrats were elected to the Reichstag in the 1890's.
Social Democratic Party
- Socialistic. - In 1906 this party opposed a colonial war in German Southwest Africa which caused them major losses in 1907 elections. After this the Party broadened its base and adopted a more patriotic tone. - In 1912 the party became the largest single party in the Reichstag. Even though the party was actually becoming less radical in Germany, this electoral victory increased the fears of the aristocrats and the wealthy conservative middle class.
Third Republic of Paris
Proclaimed by patriotic republicans after the military disaster at Sadan (during the Franco-Prussian war). - It lasted until France surrendered Alsace and Lorraine to Germany.
Paris Commune
Established by the traumatized Parisians after the Franco-Prussian war. The Paris Commune was proclaimed in 1871. The leaders wanted to govern Paris without the interference from the conservative country side. Howeve, the National Assembly would have none of it.
Adolphe Thiers
The leader of the National Assembly in France who ordered French troops into Paris to crush the commune. 20,000 people died. He was the President of France.
Leon Gambetta
Son of an Italian grocer. - A moderate Republican leader who was a stablizing factor as France attempted to unify again. - He preached for a republic of equal opportunity. - He was a major factor in the establishment of an absolute Parliamentary supremacy between 1877 and 1879.
Marshall MacMahon
He was the President of the Republic who was forced to resign when Parliaments power became absolute.
Jules Ferry
A leader of the moderate Republicans of small towns and villages, passes a series of laws between 1879 and 1886. Which included free compulsory elementary education for boys and girls (secular education) Expanded the state system of public tax supported schools. - The third republic also actively encouraged young teachers to marry, three reasons they did this 1. teachers with kids provided an alternative to nuns. 2. Believed married women would cope better with the possible loneliness and isolation of the small towns. 3. concerned about France's low birthrate - set examples to others.
Dreyfus Affair
Alfred Dreyfus was a Jewish captain in the French army. Falsely accused and convicted of treason. On one side of the issue was the army who planted false evidence who were supported by the anti-semites and most Catholics. On the other side were the civil libertarians and most of the more radical republicans. This battle over his innocence split France apart and revived the republican feelings against the church between 1901 and 1905 the gov't severed all ties b/w church and state. The state no longer paid the salaries of church officials and stopped paying money to Catholic schools. Leaving the church and its communities to fund their own activities.
John Stuart Mill
(1806-1873). A Benthamite who wrote the essay On Liberty in 1859. He pleaded for safeguarding individual differences and unpopular opinions when addressing issues on how to protest the rights of individuals and minorities.
Benjamin Disraeli
In 1867 along with the conservatives had extended the vote to all middle class males and best paid workers. He continually worked to broaden the base of the conservative party with aristocratic and landed support.
Third Reform Bill of 1884
Gave the vote to almost every adult male in GB.
Peoples Budget
A measure passed by the Commons of Great Britain that was vetoed by the House of Lords. Designed to increase spending on social welfare services. One of the vetoed measures would have increased spending on social welfare services. This bill did end up passing when the king threatened to create new peers that would pass it.
David Lloyd George
(1863-1945). A member of the liberal party. He led the way in raising taxes on the rich as part of the Peoples Budget. The additional taxes paid for national health insurance, unemployment benefits, old age pensions and other social measures in GB.
William Gladstone
(1809-1898). A liberal Prime Minister. He introduced bills to give Ireland self gov't in 1886 and 1893. Both attempts failed. The Irish nationalists in Parliament supported the liberals during the battle for the Peoples Budget and in return a home rule bill was granted for Ireland.
Ulsterites
The Irish Protestants of the Northern countries of Ulster and opposed home rule by December 1913 they had raised 100,000 armed volunteers and were supported by much of the English public.
Dual Monarchy
The Austrian-Hungarian Empire was divided in two. The Magyars gained virtual independence for Hungary. The other half was Austria. The two countries shared a monarch and common ministries for finance, defense and foreign affairs. Each country dealt with their own Barbarians as they saw fit.
Modern Anti-Semitism
Claimed the Jewish race not religion posed a biological threat to German people. It also expressed resentment against Jewish achievements and financial control (which occurred during previous time when they were becoming successfully). These anti-Jew views were popular among conservatives, extreme nationalists and people who were threatened by Jewish competition in business. Even anti-Jew political parties were created.
Karl Lueger
In Austrian Vienna in the early 1890's along with his Christian Socialists won striking electoral victories based on their anti-Semetic views. - He became mayor of Vienna from 1897-1910 by combining anti-Semetic views and city ownership of basic services, his supporters mainly included the German speaking lower middle class and Adolph Hitler (an unsuccessful young artist).
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